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Fr.101, a-c.
a. LsR (HME5)/2:5. The Lhammas. Lhammas B. Of the Valian Tongue and its Descendants.
Of the language of the Dwarves little is known to us, save that its origin is as dark as is the origin of the Dwarvish race itself; and their tongues are not akin to other tongues, but wholly alien, and they are harsh and intricate, and few have essayed to learn them. (Thus saith Rumil in his writings concerning the speeches of the earth of old, but I, Pengolod, have heard it said by some that Aule first made the Dwarves, longing for the coming of Elves and Men, and desiring those to whom he could teach his crafts and wisdom. And he thought in his heart that he could forestall Iluvatar. But the Dwarves have no spirit indwelling, as have Elves and Men, the Children of Iluvatar, and this the Valar cannot give. Therefore the Dwarves have skill and craft, but no art, and they make no poetry. Aule devised a speech for them afresh, for his delight [is] in invention, and it has therefore no kinship with others; and they have made this harsh in use. Their tongues are, therefore, Aulian; and survive yet in a few places with the Dwarves in Middle-earth, and besides that the languages of Men are derived in part from them.)
/Comm. on Lhammas B, §9/. The legend of Aule's making of the Dwarves has appeared in AB 2 (annal 104), in a passage strikingly similar to the present, and containing the same phrase 'the Dwarves have no spirit indwelling'.

b. LsR (HME5)/2:3. The Later Annals of Beleriand /AB 2/.
Year 104 [154].
About this time the Gnomes climbed Eredlindon and gazed eastward, but they did not pass into the lands beyond. In those mountains the folk of Cranthir came first upon the Dwarves, and there was yet no enmity between them, and nonetheless little love. It was not known in those days whence the Dwarves had origin, save that they were not of Elf-kin or of mortal kind, nor yet of Morgoth's breeding. But it is said by some of the wise in Valinor, as I have since learned," that Aule made the Dwarves long ago, desiring the coming of the Elves and of Men, for he wished to have learners to whom he could teach his crafts of hand, and he could not wait upon the designs of Iluvatar. But the Dwarves have no spirit indwelling, as have the Children of the Creator, and they have skill but not art; and they go back into the stone of the mountains of which they were made.

c. WJ (HME11)/2:13. The Later Quenta Silmarillion /LQ 1 + LQ 2/. Concerning the Dwarves.
[§2]. The Naugrim are not of Elf-kind, nor of Man-kind, nor yet of Melkor's breeding; and the Noldor in Middle-earth knew not whence they came, holding that they were alien to the Children, albeit in many ways like unto them. But in Valinor the wise have learned that the Dwarves were made in secret by Aule, while Earth was yet dark; for he desired the coming of the Children of Iluvatar, that he might have learners to whom he could teach his crafts and lore, and he was unwilling to await the fulfilment of the designs of Iluvatar. Wherefore, though the Dwarves are like the Orcs in this: that they came of the wilfulness of one of the Valar, they are not evil; for they were not made out of malice in mockery of the Children, but came of the desire of Aule's heart to make things of his own after the pattern of the designs of Iluvatar. And since they came in the days of the power of Melkor, Aule made them strong to endure. Therefore they are stone-hard, stubborn, fast in friendship and in enmity, and they suffer toil and hunger and hurt of body more hardily than all other speaking-folk. And they live long, far beyond the span of Men, and yet not for ever. Aforetime the Noldor held that dying they returned unto the earth and the stone of which they were made; yet that is not their own belief. For they say that Aule cares for them and gathers them in Mandos in halls set apart for them, and there they wait, not in idleness but in the practice of crafts and the learning of yet deeper lore. And Aule, they say, declared to their Fathers of old that Iluvatar had accepted from him the work of his desire, and that Iluvatar will hallow them and give them a place among the Children in the End. Then their part shall be to serve Aule and to aid him in the remaking of Arda after the Last Battle.

LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/. Chapter 3 (a).
/After the Lamps' destruction/ in the North Morgoth built his strength, and gathered his demons about him. These were the first made of his creatures: their hearts were of fire, and they had whips of flame. The Gnomes in later days named them Balrogs. But in that time Morgoth made many monsters of divers kinds and shapes that long troubled the world; yet the Orcs were not made until he had looked upon the Elves, and he made them in mockery of the Children of Iluvatar.
/Draft of this passage, quoted and commented in Comm. on Chapter 3(a), §18/ The original text of the passage concerning the demons of Morgoth ran as follows: '... in the North Morgoth built his strength, and gathered his demon-broods about him, whom the Gnomes after knew as Balrogs: they had whips of flame. The Uvanimor he made, monsters of divers kinds and shapes; but the Orcs were not made until he had looked upon the Elves'. The term Uvanimor occurs in the Lost Tales, /HME/ 1. 75 ('monsters, giants, and ogres') / Fr.1/, etc.; cf. Vanimor' the Beautiful'. /.../ On the question of when the Orcs first came into being see /HME 5/ p. 148 / Fr.96:Comm./ and commentary on QS §62 / Fr.103a/. It is said in The Fall of.Numenor II (§1) / Fr.93/ that the Orcs are 'mockeries of the creatures of Iluvatar' (cf. also The Lost Road, /HME 5/ p. 65 / Fr.94/). In QS §62 / Fr.103a/ the idea that the Orcs were mockeries of the Elves is found in the text as originally written.

a. LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/. Chapter 5.
/Aftermath of the Trees' destruction and the fight with Ungoliant/. Thus Morgoth came back to his ancient habitation, and he built anew his vaults and dungeons and great towers, in that place which the Gnomes after knew as Angband. There countless became the hosts of his beasts and demons; and he brought into being the race of the Orcs, and they grew and multiplied in the bowels of the earth. These Orcs Morgoth made in envy and mockery of the Elves, and they were made of stone, but their hearts of hatred. Glamhoth, the hosts of hate, the Gnomes have called them. Goblins they may be called, but in ancient days they were strong and fell.
Comm. on Chapter 5, §62. Q has 'To his aid came the Orcs and Balrogs that lived yet in the lowest places of Angband', but Orcs are absent here in QS. /.../ In Q the passage about Morgoth's making of the Orcs, precursor of this in QS, is placed earlier (/HME/ IV.82 / Fr.76), before the making of the stars and the awakening of the Elves; at the corresponding place in QS (§ 18) / Fr.102/ it is said that 'the Orcs were not made until he had looked upon the Elves.' In Q, at the place (/HME/ IV. 93 / Fr.77/) corresponding to the present passage in QS, it is said that 'countless became the number of the hosts of his Orcs and demons' - i.e. the Orcs were already in existence before Morgoth's return (and so could come to his aid when they heard his cry); but there is a direction in Q at this point (/HME/ IV. 93 note 8 / Fr.77, note 8/) to bring in the making of the Orcs here rather than earlier (the reason for this being the idea that the Orcs were made 'in mockery of the Children of Iluvatar').

b. RSh (HME6)/10. The Attack on Weathertop.
Note 9 to The Attack on Weathertop. /.../ There are other very roughly written texts giving a resume of a part of 'The Silmarillion'
But Morgoth, the greatest of the Powers, made war upon the Gods, and he destroyed the Trees, and fled. And he took with him the immortal gems, the Silmarils, that were made by the Elves of the light of the Trees, and in which alone now the ancient radiance of the days of bliss remained. In the north of the Middle-earth he set up his throne Angband, the Halls of Iron under Thangorodrim the Mountain of Thunder; and he grew in strength and darkness; and he brought forth the Orcs and goblins, and the Balrogs, demons of fire. But the High Elves of the West forsook the land of the Gods and returned to the earth, and made war upon him to regain the jewels.
/Comm./ Very curious is the statement here that when Morgoth returned to Middle-earth after the destruction of the Trees 'he brought forth the Orcs and goblins, and the Balrogs, demons of fire.' It was certainly my father's view at this period that the Orcs were then first engendered (see V. 233, §62 and commentary / Fr.103a/), but the Balrogs were far older in their beginning (V. 212, §18 / Fr.102/), and indeed came to rescue Morgoth from Ungoliante at the time of his return: 'to his aid there came the Balrogs that lived yet in the deepest places of his ancient fortress.'

LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/. Chapter 8.
/The Siege of Angband/. And the Orcs multiplied again in the bowels of the earth.

LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/. Chapter 9.
Of old the lord of Ossiriand was Denethor, friend of Thingol; but he was slain in battle when he marched to the aid of Thingol against Melko, in the days when the Orcs were first made and broke the starlit peace of Beleriand.
Comm. on Chapter 9, §115. With 'when the Orcs were first made' cf. QS §62 / Fr.103/: 'he brought into being the race of the Orcs' (i.e. when Morgoth came back to Middle-earth).

LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/. Chapter 10.
For though the Dwarfs did not serve Morgoth, yet they were in some things more like to his people than to the Elves. /.../ The Naugrim were not of the Elf-race nor of mortal kind, nor yet of Morgoth's breeding; and in those days the Gnomes knew not whence they came. [But it is said by the wise in Valinor, as we have learned since, that Aule made the Dwarfs while the world was yet dark, desiring the coming of the Children of Iluvatar, that he might have learners to whom he could teach his lore and craft, and being unwilling to await the fulfilment of the designs of Iluvatar. Wherefore the Dwarfs are like the Orcs in this, that they come of the wilfulness of one of the Valar; but they were not made out of malice and mockery, and were not begotten of evil purpose. Yet they derive their thought and being after their measure from only one of the Powers, whereas Elves and Men, to whomsoever among the Valar they chiefly turn, have kinship with all in some degree. Therefore the works of the Dwarfs have great skill, but small beauty, save where they imitate the arts of the Eldar; and the Dwarfs return unto the earth and the stone of the hills of which they were fashioned]. /../ They /the Dwarfs/ aided the Gnomes greatly in their war with the Orcs of Morgoth ; but it is not thought that they would have refused to smithy also for Morgoth, if he had had need of their work, or had been open to their trade.
Comm. on Chapter 10, §122. It is remarkable that at this time the statement that the Dwarves were 'in some things more like to Morgoth's people than to the Elves' still survived from Q (IV. 104); but this is now palliated by what is said in §123, where the likeness of the Dwarves to the Orcs is represented only as an analogous limitation of natural powers consequent on their origins.

LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/. Chapter 11.
The valour of the Elves and Men of the North, which neither Orc nor Balrog could yet overcome.

a. LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/. Chapter 11.
Thus died Fingolfin. /.../ The Orcs make no boast of that duel at the gate; neither do the Elves sing of it, for sorrow.
Comm. on Chapter 11, §140. In Q §9 (/HME/ IV. P.106) 'The Orcs sing of that duel at the gates', and in the Lay of Leithian (/HME 3/3, lines 3584-5) 'Yet Orcs would after laughing tell / of the duel at the gates of hell.'

b. Silmarillion-1977. Quenta Silmarillion /Silmarillion/. 18. Of the Ruin of Beleriand and the Fall of Fingolfin.
Thus died Fingolfin /.../. The Orcs made no boast of that duel at the gate; neither do the Elves sing of it, for their sorrow is too deep.

LsR (HME5)/3. The Etymologies.
GLAM- Noldorin form of LAM, also influenced by NGAL(AM). Noldorin glamb, glamm shouting, confused noise; Glamhoth = 'the barbaric host', Orcs . glambr, glamor echo; glamren echoing; cf. Eredlemrin = Dor. Lominorthin. glavro to babble, glavrol babbling.
NDAK- slay. Old Noldorin ndakie to slay /.../ *ndako warrior, soldier: Old Noldorin ndoko, Noldorin daug chiefly used of Orcs, also called Boldog. [Boldog is an Orc-captain in the Lay of Leithian and in Q §10. The meaning here is that Boldog was used beside daug ; see NGWAL].
NGAL- / NGALAM- talk loud or incoherently. Quenya nalme clamour; Noldorin glamb, glamm (*ngalambe, influenced by lambe ) barbarous speech; Glamhoth = Orcs. See LAM, GLAM. [The stem was changed subsequently to NGYAL- and Quenya nalme to yalme.]
NGWAL- torment. Quenya ungwale torture; nwalya- to pain, torment; nwalka cruel. Noldorin balch cruel; baul torment, cf. Bal- in Balrog or Bolrog , and Orc-name Boldog = Orc-warrior 'Torment-slayer' (cf. NDAK).
OROK- *orku goblin: Quenya orko, pl. orqi. Old Noldorin orko, pl. orkui; Noldorin orch, pl. yrch. Doriathrin urch, pl. urchin. Danian Elvish urc, pl. yrc.
RUK- demon. Quenya rauko demon, malarauko (*ngwalarauko, cf. NGWAL); Noldorin rhaug, Balrog.

LsR (HME5)/Appendix. Appendix II. The List of Names. /Rend./
Balrog is said to be an Orc-word with no pure Qenya equivalent: 'borrowed Malaroko-'; contrast the Etymologies, stems NCWAL, RUK. Gothmog '= Voice of Goth (Morgoth), an Orc-name.' Morgoth is explained at its place in the list as 'formed from his Orc-name Goth "Lord or Master", with mor "dark or black" prefixed.' These entries in the List of Names have been discussed in /HME/ II. P.67. In the Etymologies the element goth is differently explained in Gothmog (GOS, GOTH) and in Morgoth (KOT, but with a suggestion that the name 'may also contain GOTH ).
Orcs 'Gnomish orch, pl. eirch, erch; Qenya ork, orqui borrowed from Gnomish. A folk devised and brought into being by Morgoth to war on Elves and Men; sometimes translated "Goblins", but they were of nearly human stature.' See the entry OROK in the Etymologies.

a. RSh (HME6)/3. Of Gollum and the Ring.
/Version I. Speech of unnamed person, obviously Gandalf/
In the very ancient days the Ring-lord made many of these Rings: and sent them out through the world to snare people. He sent them to all sorts of folk - the Elves had many, and there are now many elfwraiths in the world, but the Ring-lord cannot rule them; the goblins got many, and the invisible goblins are very evil and wholly under the Lord; dwarves I don't believe had any; some say the rings don't work on them: they are too solid. Men had few, but they were most quickly overcome and. /.../ Other creatures got them. Do you remember Bilbo's story of Gollum? (7) We don't know where Gollum comes in - certainly not elf, nor goblin; he is probably not dwarf; we rather believe he really belongs to an ancient sort of hobbit.
Note 7. After this sentence my father wrote: 'Gollum I think some sort of distant kinsman of the goblin sort.' Since this is contradicted in the next sentence it was obviously rejected in the act of writing; he crossed it out later.
/Version II. Gandalf's speech/ 'The elves had many, and there are now many elf-wraiths in the world; the goblins had some and their wraiths are very evil and wholly under the command of the Lord. /.../ They /Bilbo and Gommum/ understood one another really (if you think of it) better than hobbits ever understood dwarves, elves, or goblins.'

b. TI (HME7)/3:2. The Fourth Phase (2): From Bree to the Ford of Rivendell. II. Ancient History.
Bilbo and Gollum understood one another (if you think of it) better than hobbits have ever understood dwarves or goblins, or even elves.

c. LotR. 1:2. The Shadow of the Past.
They understood one another remarkably well, very much better than a hobbit would understand, say, a Dwarf, or an Orc, or even an Elf.'

a. RSh (HME6)/5. The Old Forest and the Withywindle.
/.../ old bogey stories our nurses used to tell us, about goblins and wolves /of Old Forest/ and things of that sort.

b. LotR. 1:5. A Conspiracy Unmasked.
'There!' said Merry. 'You have left the Shire, and are now outside, and on the edge of the Old Forest.' 'Are the stories about it true?' asked Pippin. 'I don't know what stories you mean,' Merry answered. 'If you mean the old bogey-stories Fatty's nurses used to tell him, about goblins and wolves and things of that sort, I should say no. At any rate I don't believe them. But the Forest is queer. Everything in it is very much more alive,

RSh (HME6)/10. The Attack on Weathertop.
But North and East the neighbouring lands were empty of all save birds and beasts, unfriendly places deserted by all the races of the world: Elves, Men, Dwarves, or Hobbits, and even by goblins.

a. RSh (HME6)/12. At Rivendell. /Rend./
He /Gandalf/ says that the Riders wear black robes 'to give shape to their nothingness in our world', and he includes among the servants of the Dark Lord 'orcs and goblins' and 'kings, warriors, and wizards.'

b. RSh (HME6)/21. The Third Phase (3). To Weathertop and Rivendell.
Among the servants of the Dark Lord Gandalf still includes, as in the previous version, 'orcs and goblins' and 'kings, warriors, and wizards' (p. 211 / Fr.114a/).

c. LotR. 2:1. Many Meetings.
`Because these horses are born and bred to the service of the Dark Lord in Mordor. Not all his servants and chattels are wraiths! There are orcs and trolls, there are wargs and werewolves; and there have been and still are many Men, warriors and kings, that walk alive under the Sun, and yet are under his sway. And their number is growing daily.'

a. RSh (HME6)/15. Ancient History/:
After Sauron left Mirkwood for Mordor and rebuilt it/ Already his power was creeping out over the lands again and the mountains and woods were darkened. Men were restless and moving North and West, and many seemed now to be partly or wholly under the dominion of the Dark Lord. There were wars, and there was much burning and ruin. The dwarves were growing afraid. Goblins were multiplying again and reappearing. Trolls of a new and most malevolent kind were abroad; giants were spoken of, a Big Folk only far bigger and stronger than Men the Big Folk, and no stupider, indeed often full of cunning and wizardry. And there were vague hints of things or creatures more terrible than goblins, trolls, or giants. Elves were vanishing, or wandering steadily westward.

b. LotR. 1:2. The Shadow of the Past.
That name /Mordor/ the hobbits only knew in legends of the dark past, like a shadow in the background of their memories; but it was ominous and disquieting. It seemed that the evil power in Mirkwood had been driven out by the White Council only to reappear in greater strength in the old strongholds of Mordor. The Dark Tower had been rebuilt, it was said. From there the power was spreading far and wide, and away far east and south there were wars and growing fear. Orcs were multiplying again in the mountains. Trolls were abroad, no longer dull-witted, but cunning and armed with dreadful weapons. And there were murmured hints of creatures more terrible than all these, but they had no name.

a. RSh (HME6)/15. Ancient History
/Gandalf's speech/ Isildor's host was overwhelmed by Goblins that swarmed down out of the mountains.

b. RSh (HME6)/19. The Third Phase (1): the Journey to Bree. Ch. II. Ancient History. /Rend./
Isildor of the second text is now written Isildur. Isildur's host was overwhelmed by 'Orcs', not 'Goblins' (see p. 437, note 35 / Fr.120/).

RSh (HME6)/20. The Third Phase (2). At the Sign of the Prancing Pony. Notes /Comm./
Note 1. The drafts have 'Few had survived the turmoils of the Earliest Days', an expression used in the Foreword (p. 329, note i), where FR has 'Elder Days', the earliest form of the passage has: 'Few had survived the turmoils of those old and forgotten days, and the wars of the Elves and Goblins'.

RSh (HME6)/22. New Uncertainties and New Projections.
Alterations of Plot. 9. Mines of Moria. These again deserted - except for Goblins.

RSh (HME6)/23. In the House of Elrond.
Moria was the ancestral home of the dwarves of the race of Durin, and the forefathers of Thorin and Dain dwelt there, until they were driven by the goblin invasions far into the North.

a. RSh (HME6)/24. The Ring Goes South.
He /Bilbo/ told me /Frodo/ tales of the dwarves and goblins. But I have no idea where they /Moria's dwellings/ are.' 'They are not far away,' said the wizard /Gandalf/. 'They are in these mountains. They were made by the Dwarves of Durin's clan many hundreds of years ago, when elves dwelt in Hollin, and there was peace between the two races. In those ancient days Durin dwelt in Caron-dun, and there was traffic on the Great River. But the Goblins - fierce orcs (35) in great number - drove them out after many wars, and most of the dwarves that escaped removed far into the North. /.../ If there are orcs in the mines, it will prove ill for us. But most of the goblins of the Misty Mountains were destroyed in the Battle of Five Armies at the Lonely Mountain. There is a chance that the mines are still deserted.
Note 35. This is not the first use of the word Orcs in the LR papers: Gandalf refers to 'orcs and goblins' among the servants of the Dark Lord, pp. 211 / Fr.114a/, 364 / Fr.114b/. /.../ But the rarity of the usage at this stage is remarkable. The word Orc goes back to the Lost Tales, and had been pervasive in all my father's subsequent writings. In the Lost Tales the two terms were used as equivalents, though some times apparently distinguished (see II. 364 /=Index/, entry Goblins). A clue may be found in a passage that occurs in both the earlier and the later Quenta (IV.82, V.233): 'Goblins they may be called, but in ancient days they mere strong and fell.' At this stage it seems that 'Orcs' are to be regarded as a more formidable kind of 'Goblin', so in the preliminary sketch for 'The Mines of Moria' (p. 443) Gandalf says 'there are goblins - of very evil kind, larger than usual, real orcs.' - It is incidentally notable that in the first edition of The Hobbit the word Orcs is used only once (at the end of Chapter VII 'Queer Lodgings'), while in the published LR goblins is hardly ever used.

b. /Ibid. Note 38; earlier alternative version of Gandalf's speech is referred to/ /Rend./
Gandalf's account of Moria here differs from the earlier form /.../ only in that here there is mention of Durin, of the peace between Elves and Dwarves, and of Orcs (see note 35) - the rejected version refers only to goblins.

RSh (HME6)/25. The Mines of Moria. /Rend./
Gandalf says there are goblins - of very evil kind, larger than usual, real orcs. (2) Also certainly some kind of troll is leading them. 'I am going to try and find the opening words. I once knew every formula and spell in any language of elves, dwarves, or goblins that was ever used for such purposes. /.../ /About Dweller in the Pool of Moria/ There are older and fouler things than goblins in the dark places of the world.'
Note 2. See p. 437, note 35 / Fr.120a/; and cf. the corresponding passage in FR (p. 338), where Gandalf says: 'There are Orcs, very many of them. And some are large and evil: black Uruks of Mordor'.

/NB. Íà ïðîòÿæåíèè âñåx òîìîâ HME 7-9 òåðìèíû goblins, Goblins, Orcs è orcs óïîòðåáëÿþòñÿ áåññèñòåìíî êàê àáñîëþòíûå ñèíîíèìû, ñ ÿâíûì ïðåîáëàäàíèåì òåðìèíà "îðê", êðîìå êîíòåêñòîâ, ñâÿçàííûõ ñ äâàðôàìè Ìîðèè, ãäå äîâîëüíî ÷àñòî óïîòðåáëÿåòñÿ è òåðìèí "ãîáëèí"/.

TI (HME 7)/4. Of Hamilcar, Gandalf and Saruman.
Saramund betrays him - having fallen and gone over to Sauron: (either) he tells Gandalf false news of the Black Riders, and they pursue him to the top of a mountain; there he is left standing alone with a guard (wolves, orcs, etc. all about) while they ride off.

a. TI (HME 7)/6. The counsil of Elrond (1). The Fourth Version.
/Gandalf tells his story/ And the vale that was once fair was filled with wolves and orcs, for Saruman was there mustering a great force for the service of his new master. And the Eagles of the Misty Mountains kept watch and they saw the mustering of orcs, and got news of the escape of Gollum, and they sent word to Orthanc of this to me. And so it was /.../ that Gwaewar the Windlord chief of the eagles came to me /.../ and he bore me away before Saruman was aware, and the orcs and wolves that he released found me not.

b. LotR. 2:2. The Council of Elrond.
/Gandalf speaks/ Wolves and orcs were housed in Isengard, for Saruman was mustering a great force on his own account, in rivalry of Sauron and not in his service yet. /.../ And the Eagles of the Mountains went far and wide, and they saw many things: the gathering of wolves and the mustering off Orcs; and the Nine Riders going hither and thither in the lands; and they heard news of the escape of Gollum. And they sent a messenger to bring these tidings to me. /.../ I was far from Isengard, ere the wolves and orcs issued from the gate to pursue me.

TI (HME 7)/7. The counsil of Elrond (2). The Fifth Version.
In the days of the Dragon, Thror returned thither. But he was slain by an Orc, and though that was revenged by Thorin and Dain, and many goblins were slain in war. /.../ /Comm./ This passage, of which only a trace remains in FR (pp. 253 - 4), reveals the development of new conceptions in the history of the Dwarves. In the original text of 'The Ring Goes South' (VI.429) Gandalf said that the Goblins drove the Dwarves from Moria, and most of those that escaped removed into the North. This must have been based on what was told in The Hobbit: in Chapter III Elrond had said that 'there are still forgotten treasures to be found in the deserted caverns of the mines of Moria, since the dwarf and goblin war', and in Chapter IV there was a reference to the goblins having 'spread in secret after the sack of the mines of Moria'. Presumably therefore what my father said in the first version of 'The Ring Goes South' was what he actually had in mind when he wrote those passages in The Hobbit: the Goblins drove the Dwarves out of Moria.
Note 3. In the original edition of The Hobbit the goblin who slew Thror in Moria was not named, as he is not in the present passage ('he was slain by an Orc'). In the third edition of 1966 the name Azog was introduced (from LR) in Chapter I as that of the slayer of Thror, and a footnote was added in Chapter XVII stating that Bolg, leader of the Goblins in the Battle of Five Armies, was the son of Azog.

TI (HME 7)/9. The Mines of Moria (1). The Lord of Moria.
When Gandalf was striving to find the spell that would open the doors he said that he once knew 'every spell in all the tongues of Elf, Dwarf, or Goblin' (FR 'of Elves or Men or Orcs') that was ever so used /.../ 'Goblins' appear again, as in the old version, where FR has 'Orcs', in Gandalf's 'There are older and fouler things than goblins in the deep places of the world.' /.../ The dwarves carried much away; and though the dread of its dark mazes has protected Moria from Men and Elves it has not defended it from the goblins, who have often invaded it and plundered it.' Against these my father wrote: 'Mithril is now nearly all lost. Orcs plunder it and pay tribute to Sauron who is collecting it /.../ 'No one knows,' said Gandalf. 'None have dared to seek for the armouries and treasure chambers down in the deep places since the dwarves fled. Unless it be plundering orcs. /.../ 'They were,' said Gimli, 'but orcs have plundered often inside Moria nonetheless.

a. TI (HME 7)/10. The Mines of Moria (2). The Bridge..
'It is a record of the fortunes of Balin's folk,' /.../ 'We drove out Orcs from ... first hall. /../ an orc shot him /Balin/ from behind a stone. We slew the orc, but many.... /.../

b. TI (HME 7)/10. The Mines of Moria (2). The Bridge..
/same chronicle, version II/ 'We drove out Orcs... from guard something and first hall. We slew many under the bright sun in the Dale.

TI (HME 7)/10. The Mines of Moria (2). The Bridge..
'There are goblins: very many of them,' he /Gandalf/ said. 'Evil they look and large: black Orcs.(5)
Note 5. My father first wrote here: 'veritable Orcs'. Cf. the original sketch for the chapter given in VI.443: 'Gandalf says there are goblins - of very evil kind, larger than usual, real orcs', and my discussion of 'goblins' and 'orcs' in VI.437 note 35 / Fr.120a/. In FR at this point Gandalf says: 'There are Orcs, very many of them. And some are large and evil: black Uruks of Mordor.'

a. TI (HME 7)/10. The Mines of Moria (2). The Bridge.
But even as they retreated once more a huge orc-chief, almost man-high, clad in black mail from head to foot, leaped through the door. Behind him but not yet daring to advance stood many followers. His eyes were like coals of fire. He wielded a great spear. Boromir who was at the rear turned, but with a thrust of his shield the orc put aside his stroke and with huge strength bore him back and flung him down. Then leaping with the speed of a snake he charged and smote with his spear straight at Frodo. The blow caught him on the right side. Frodo was hurled against the wall and pinned. Sam with a cry hewed at the spear and it broke.... but even as the orc cast the shaft aside and drew his scimitar the sword of Elendil drove down upon his helm. There was a flash like flame and the helm burst. The orc-chieftain fell with cloven head. Away beyond the fiery fissure Frodo saw the swarming black figures of many orcs. They brandished spears and scimitars which shone red as blood. Boom, boom rolled the drum-beats now advancing louder and louder and more and more menacing. Two great dark troll-figures could be seen among the orcs.
/Comm./ /Version II/. (It may be noted incidentally that 'orcs', rather than 'goblins', becomes pervasive in this text: see note 5 / Fr.127/). /.../ Gandalf /.../ still says 'There are goblins... They are evil and large: black Orcs', but the troll becomes 'a great cave-troll' as in FR,

b. LotR. 2:5 The Bridge of Khazad-dum.
But even as they retreated, and before Pippin and Merry had reached the stair outside, a huge orc-chieftain, almost man-high, clad in black mail from head to foot, leaped into the chamber; behind him his followers clustered in the doorway. His broad flat face was swart, his eyes were like coals, and his tongue was red; he wielded a great spear. With a thrust of his huge hide shield he turned Boromir's sword and bore him backwards, throwing him to the ground. Diving under Aragorn's blow with the speed of a striking snake he charged into the Company and thrust with his spear straight at Frodo. The blow caught him on the right side, and Frodo was hurled against the wall and pinned. Sam, with a cry, hacked at the spear-shaft, and it broke. But even as the orc flung down the truncheon and swept out his scimitar, Anduril came down upon his helm. There was a flash like flame and the helm burst asunder. The orc fell with cloven head. His followers fled howling, as Boromir and Aragorn sprang at them. `As I stood there I could hear orc-voices on the other side: at any moment I thought they would burst it open. I could not hear what was said; they seemed to be talking in their own hideous language. All I caught was ghâsh; that is "fire". Then something came into the chamber - I felt it through the door, and the orcs themselves were afraid and fell silent. It laid hold of the iron ring, and then it perceived me and my spell. Arrows fell among them. One struck Frodo and sprang back. Another pierced Gandalf's hat and stuck there like a black feather. Frodo looked behind. Beyond the fire he saw swarming black figures: there seemed to be hundreds of orcs. They brandished spears and scimitars which shone red as blood in the firelight.

a. TI (HME 7)/13. Galadriel.
/Keleborn's speech/ As yet no wolf or orc make headway in that land /of Beornings/.
Note 15. The last two sentences of Keleborn's speech and the first part of Gimli's reply were subsequently used in Gloin's conversation with Frodo at Rivendell (FR p. 241): 'Frodo learned that Grimbeorn the Old, son of Beorn, was now the lord of many sturdy men, and to their land between the Mountains and Mirkwood neither orc nor wolf dared to go.

b. LotR. 2:1. Many Meetings.
Frodo learned that Grimbeorn the Old, son of Beorn, was now the lord of many sturdy men, and to their land between the Mountains and Mirkwood neither orc nor wolf dared to go.

TI (HME 7)/14. Farewell to Lorien.
The arrows of the orcs are bitter and fly straight.

TI (HME 7)/16. The story foreseen from Lorien.
(ii) Mordor.
You must do your best to kill the Orc that comes in', said Frodo /.../ Swiftly they stripped the orc, peeling off his coat of black scale-like mail, unbuckling his sword, and unslinging the small round shield at his back. The black iron cap was too large for Sam (for orcs have large heads for their size), but he slipped on the mail. It hung a little loose and long. He cast the black hooded cloak about him, took the whip and scimitar, and slung the red shield. Then they dragged the body behind the door and crept out. /.../ Frodo slipped on his Ring and drew aside; but Sam went on to meet the goblin. They brushed into one another and the goblin spoke in his harsh tongue; but Sam answered only with an angry snarl. That seemed satisfactory. /.../ The goblin drew aside to let him pass.

TI (HME 7)/16. The story foreseen from Lorien.
Ch. XXV.
'Nay!' said Sam, 'that won't do. If we have a fight at the gate, we might as well or better stay inside. We'd have the whole wasps' nest, orcs and bogeys and all, buzzing after us, before we'd gone a dozen yards: and they know these horrible mountains as well as I mind me of Bag-End'.

TI (HME 7)/16. The story foreseen from Lorien. Note 18 /Comm./
At a later stage my father pencilled in various developments to Chapters XXII and XXIII (as renumbered). The synopsis of the former he altered thus: 'Black orcs of Misty Mountains capture Merry and Pippin, bear them to Isengard. But the orcs are attacked by the Rohiroth'.

a. TI (HME 7)/17. The Great River..
'Anduin is wide, yet the orc-bows will with ease shoot an arrow across the stream'. /.../ Each one expected at any minute to feel the sting of a blackfeathered orc-arrow. But it was now grown very dark, dark even for the keen night-eyes of goblins; goblins were on the bank, they did not doubt.
/Comm. In later version/ 'it was very dark, dark even for the night-eyes of orcs'.

b. LotR. 2:9. The Great River.
'Anduin is wide, yet the orcs can shoot their arrows far across the stream; and of late, it is said, they have dared to cross the water and raid the herds and studs of Rohan.' /.../ They all leaned forward straining at the paddles: even Sam took a hand. Every moment they expected to feel the bite of black-feathered arrows. Many whined overhead or struck the water nearby; but there were no more hits. It was dark, but not too dark for the night-eyes of Orcs, and in the star-glimmer they must have offered their cunning foes some mark, unless it was that the grey cloaks of Lorien and the grey timber of the elf-wrought boats defeated the malice of the archers of Mordor. /.../ `I can't abide fog,' said Sam; `but this seems to be a lucky one. Now perhaps we can get away without those cursed goblins seeing us.'

TI (HME 7)/19. The Departure of Boromir.
/Early draft/ Trotter sees by the shape and arms of the dead orcs that they are northern orcs of the Misty Mountains - from Moria? In fact they are orcs of Moria that escaped the elves, + others who are servants of Saruman.
/Resulting draft/ 'These are not orcs of Mordor,' said Trotter. 'Some are from the Misty Mountains, if I know anything of orcs and their [gear >] kinds; maybe they have come all the way from Moria. But what are these? Their gear is not all of goblin-make.' There were several orcs of large stature, armed with short swords, not the curved scimitars usual with goblins, and with great bows greater than their custom. Upon their shields they bore a device Trotter had not seen before: a small white hand in the centre of the black field. Upon the front of their caps was set a rune fashioned of some white metal (5). 'S is for Sauron,' said Gimli. 'That is easy to read.' 'Nay,' said Legolas. 'Sauron does not use the Runes.' 'Neither does he use his right name or permit it to be spelt or spoken,' said Trotter. 'And he does not use white. The orcs of his immediate service bear the sign of the single eye.' He stood for a moment in thought. 'S is for Saruman. /.../ 'But orcs go swiftly,' said Gimli. 'We shall have to run!'
Note 5. In the fair copy manuscript /.../ the caps of the Orcs become 'leathern caps' ('iron helms' TT).

TI (HME 7)/20. The Riders of Rohan.
'Even orcs must pause at times.' Before them lay a wide trampled circle, and the marks of many small fires could be seen under the shelter of a low hillock. /=Orcish camping/.

TI (HME 7)/20. The Riders of Rohan.
'It is well that the orcs do not walk with the care of their captives,' said Legolas, as he leaped lightly behind. 'At least such an enemy is easy to follow. No other folk make such trampling. Why do they slash and beat down all the growing things as they pass? Does it please them to break plants and saplings that are not even in their way?' 'It seems so,' answered [Trotter >] Aragorn; 'but they go with a great speed for all that. And they do not tire.'

TI (HME 7)/21. The Uruk-hai.
For this chapter there exists, first, a brief outline as follows: Some want to go North. Some say ought to go straight to Mordor. The great orcs were ordered to go to Isengard. They carry prisoners. Neither of them are the One. They haven't got it. Kill 'em. But they're hobbits. Saruman said bring any hobbit, alive. Curse Saruman. Who does he think he is? A good master and lord. Man's flesh to eat. /.../
/Comm./ The Orc-names are all present: Lugbtirz, Uruk-hai; Ugluk (leader of the Isengarders), Grishnak (so spelt), Lugdush. Ugluk does not use the word Halflings (TT p. 48), but calls them hobbits; he says 'We are the servants of the old Uthwit and the White Hand' (cf. TT p. 49), this being Old English upwita 'sage, philosopher, one of great learning'; and he calls the descent into the plain of Rohan the Ladder (changed to the Stair: TT p. 50). Grishnak does not name the Nazgul (TT p. 49), but says 'The winged one awaits us northward on the east bank'.
Note 2. The Orc-names Snaga and Mauhur appear already in the preliminary draft.

TI (HME 7)/22. Treebeard.
Difference between trolls - stone inhabited by goblin-spirit, stone-giants, and the 'tree-folk'. [Added in ink: Ents.] /So Ents are a kind of woodland-trolls!/ /.../
/Treedbeard's speach/ And if Saruman has started taking them up, I have got trouble right on my borders. Cutting down trees. Machines, great fires. I won't stand it. Trees that were my friends. Trees I had known from nut and acorn. Cut down and left sometimes. Orc-work.

TI (HME 7)/23. Notes on various topics.
Another note on this page, not written at the same time, refers to 'Chapter XXIV: Open with conversation of Goblins and their quarrel.

TI (HME 7)/23. Notes on various topics.
/Language of Shire/ /=Westron/ is lingua franca spoken by all people (except a few secluded folk like Lorien) - but little and ill by orcs.

WR (HME 8)/1:2. Helm's Deep.
Orcs boil round foot of the Stanrock. Then describe the assault as above. Orcs piling up over the wall. Wild men dimb on the goblins' dead bodies. Moon... men fighting on the Orcs wall top.

WR (HME 8)/1:3. The Road to Isengard.
It is with the orcs, their masters, that the wolves and carrion-birds hold their feast: such is the friendship of their kind.'

WR (HME 8)/1:4. Flotsam and Jetsam.
Orcs don' smoke.

/Half-orcs, Orc-men/
a. WR (HME 8)/1:4. Flotsam and Jetsam.
I saw them go - endless lines of Orcs, and squadrons/troops of them mounted on great wolves (a Saruman notion?), and whole regiments of men, too. /.../ The following dialogue, concerning the 'goblin-men' reminiscent of the squint-eyed Southerner at Bree, and Merry's estimate of the forces that left Isengard that night, is much the same as in TT (p. 171), except that Aragorn says that they had had many of the goblin-men to deal with at the Hornburg 'last night'.
/Note that the word 'South' is equivalent of 'Harad', with possible accent on those regions of Harad which have been ever subdued by Gondor, UT 4:2, The Istari/.

b. LotR 3:7. Helm's Deep.
'Dawn is not far off,' said Gamling, who had now climbed up beside him. 'But dawn will not help us, I fear.' 'Yet dawn is ever the hope of men,' said Aragorn. 'But these creatures of Isengard, these half-orcs and goblin-men that the foul craft of Saruman has bred, they will not quail at the sun,' said Gamling.
/Cf. same two categories of orc-men half-breeds in Fr.170: There is no doubt that long afterwards, in the Third Age, Saruman rediscovered this, or learned of it in lore, and in his lust for mastery committed this, his wickedest deed: the interbreeding of Orcs and Men, producing both Men-orcs large and cunning, and Orc-men treacherous and vile/.

c. LotR 3:9. Flotsam and Jetsam
All Saruman's people were marching away. I don't know much about this war, or about the Horsemen of Rohan, but Saruman seems to have meant to finish off the king and all his men with one final blow. He emptied Isengard. I saw the enemy go: endless lines of marching Orcs; and troops of them mounted on great wolves. And there were battalions of Men, too. Many of them carried torches, and in the flare I could see their faces. Most of them were ordinary men, rather tall and dark-haired, and grim but not particularly evil-looking. But there were some others that were horrible: man-high, but with goblin-faces, sallow, leering, squint-eyed. Do you know, they reminded me at once of that Southerner at Bree: only he was not so obviously orc-like as most of these were.' 'I thought of him too,' said Aragorn. 'We had many of these half-orcs to deal with at Helm's Deep. It seems plain now that that Southerner was a spy of Saruman's.

c-1. /Cf. on the said Southerner/: LotR. 1:10. Strider. In one of the windows he /Frodo/ caught a glimpse of a sallow face with sly, slanting eyes; but it vanished at once. 'So that's where that southerner is hiding!' he thought. 'He looks more than half like a goblin.'

d. LotR. 3:4. Treebeard. /Treebeard's speech to hobbits/. 'He /Saruman/ has taken up with foul folk, with the Orcs. Brm, hoom! Worse than that: he has been doing something to them; something dangerous. For these Isengarders are more like wicked Men. It is a mark of evil things that came in the Great Darkness that they cannot abide the Sun; but Saruman's Orcs can endure it, even if they hate it. I wonder what he has done? Are they Men he has ruined, or has he blended the races of Orcs and Men? That would be a black evil!' Treebeard rumbled for a moment, as if he were pronouncing some deep, subterranean Entish malediction. 'Some time ago I began to wonder how Orcs dared to pass through my woods so freely,' he went on. 'Only lately did I guess that Saruman was to blame.

e. SD (HME 9)/1:9. The Scouring of the Shire /from Orc-man Ruffian Sharrkey and his orc-men and barbarian men/ /.../ Very orc-like all his /Ruff.Sharkey's/ movements were, and he stooped now with his hands nearly touching the ground. /.../ The orc-man /Ruff.Sharkey/ looked at them with such a leer of hatred as they had not seen even in all their adventures. /.../ And then as with a groan and a curse the orc-man over him he stabbed upwards, and Sting passed clean through his body.
/.../ It was some time before the last ruffians were hunted out. And oddly enough, little though the hobbits were inclined to believe it, quite a number turned out to be far from incurable. If they gave themselves up they were kindly treated, and fed (for they were usually half-starved after hiding in the woods), and then shown to the borders. This sort were Dunlanders, not orc-men/halfbreeds.
Note 26. The footnote to the text in RK p. 298 'It /Name/ was probably Orkish in origin: Sharku [SecondEdition Sharku], "old man" '/In RK its a nickname for Saruman, not for his half-mannish leutenant/.

f. LotR 6:8. The Scouring of the Shire.
"Well I am staggered! - Said Pippin /to Frodo/: "To all the ends of our journey that is the very last I should have hought of: to have to fight half-orcs and ruffians in the Shire itself - to resque Lotho Pimple!" /Frodo and other hearing hobbits make no contradiction/.

WR (HME 8)/2:2. The Passage of the Marshes.
Minas Ithil now Minas Morghul which guards the pass. It was originally built by the men of Gondor to prevent Sauron breaking out and was manned by the guards of Minas Ithil, but it fell soon into his hands. It now prevented any coming in. It was manned by orcs and evil spirits. It had been called [Neleg Thilim >] Neleglos [the Gleaming >] the White Tooth.
Frodo crawled back and hid his eyes. I don't know who they are but I thought I saw Men and Elves and Orcs, all dead and rotten. Yes yes, said Gollum cackling. All dead and rotten. The Dead Marshes. Men and Elves and Orcs. There was a great Battle here long long ago.

a. WR (HME 8)/2:4. On Herbs and Stewed Rabbit.
An a great figure ... back to Elostirion ... [Struck out: Sarnel Ubed.Ennyn. Aran] Taur Toralt [struck out: Sarn Torath.] Annon Torath. Aranath. reminding Frodo of the Kings at Sern Aranath. or Sairn Ubed. But his head was struck off and in mockery some orcs? had set ... a clay ball with ... The red eye was ... [?painted over]. /.../ The headless king with a mocking head made by orcs and scrawls on it.

b. LotR. 4:7. Journey to the Cross-roads.
The brief glow fell upon a huge sitting figure, still and solemn as the great stone kings of Argonath. The years had gnawed it, and violent hands had maimed it. Its head was gone, and in its place was set in mockery a round rough-hewn stone, rudely painted by savage hands in the likeness of a grinning face with one large red eye in the midst of its forehead. Upon its knees and mighty chair, and all about the pedestal, were idle scrawls mixed with the foul symbols that the maggot-folk of Mordor used.

c. LotR. 5:10. The Black Gate Opens.
The heralds cried aloud: 'The Lords of Gondor have returned and all this land that is theirs they take back.' The hideous orc-head that was set upon the carven figure was cast down and broken in pieces, and the old king's head was raised and set in its place once more, still crowned with white and golden flowers: and men laboured to wash and pare away all the foul scrawls that orcs had put upon the stone.

WR (HME 8)/2:5. Faramir.
Very rough and here and there altogether illegible outline sketches show my father's preliminary thoughts for its continuation. One of these, impossibly difficult to read, begins at the point where the draft C ends, with Faramir still speaking to Sam: 'But you have not the manners of orcs, nor their speech, and indeed Frodo your master has an air that I cannot ..., an elvish air maybe.'

WR (HME 8)/2:8. Kirith Ungol. -The Choise of Master Samwise.
Orc-bands. They were come at last to hunt. The red eye had not been wholly blind. And a noise of feet and shouts came also through the cleft. Orcs were coming up to the pass out of Mordor too.
/.../ Goblins go fast in tunnels, especially those which they have themselves made, and all the many passages in this region of the mountains were their work, even the main tunnel and the great deep pit where Shelob housed.

WR (HME 8)/2:8. Kirith Ungol. -The Choise of Master Samwise.
'Yes, and I know them, for I was told 'em by Lugburz, see? Yagfil(48) from Dushgoi will patrol until he meets your guard, or as far as Ungol top: be will report to you before returning to. /.../
These Dushgoi bogey-men: sending messages to Lugburz.'
Note 32. The reference is to The Hobbit, Chapter Ill 'A Short Rest', where Elrond, speaking of the swords Glamdring and Orcrist taken from the trolls' hoard, says (in the text of the original edition): 'They are old swords, very old swords of the elves that are now called Gnomes. They were made in Gondolin for the Goblin-wars.'
Note 46. The names of the leaders of the Orc-bands were rather bewilderingly changed in the drafts (and some transient forms cannot be read). At first (p. 212) they were Gazmog (of the Tower) and Zaglun (of Minas Morghul), and in another brief draft of their genial greetings they become Yagul and Uftak Zaglun - so written: Zaglun may have been intended to replace Uftak, but on the other hand the double-barrelled Orc-name Naglur-Danlo is found (p. 212). The name Ufthak was subsequently given to the Orc found (and left where he was) by Shagrat and his friends in Shelob's larder, 'wide awake and glaring' (TT p. 350). In the present text the names were at first Yagul (of the Tower) and Shagrat (of Minas Morghul), but were reversed in the course of writing (and in a following draft the names became reversed again at one point, though not I think intentionally). At this point, where the Orc from Morghul is speaking, my father first wrote Shag[rat), changed it to Yagul, and then again changed it to Shagrat. See note 48. - Yagul was replaced by Gorbag in the course of writing the fair copy.
Note 47. Dushgoi: Orc name for Minas Morghul.
Note 48. The text actually has Shagrat here, but this should have been changed to Yagsil (see note 46).

WR (HME 8)/3:3. Minas Tirith.
'What is this, Gwinhir, you ruffling young fool,' said the man. 'Will you waylay anything in the street that seems smaller than yourself? Will you not choose something larger? Shame on a son of mine, brawling before my doors like a young orc.'

WR (HME 8)/3:7. The Ride of the Rohirrim.
'Those are not orc -drums. You hear the wild men of the hills: so they talk together.
/Comm./ Already in this draft the final form is very nearly achieved, with Ghan-buri-Ghan's names for the orcs (gorgun).

WR (HME 8)/3:12. The Last Debate.
In the /early/ version given on p. 413 there was fighting on the shores, for 'there were captains sent by Mordor, and orc-chieftains, and they were not so easily dismayed, and they endeavoured to hold their men to a defence. And indeed the Haradrim are a grim folk, and not easily daunted by shade or blade.'

SD (HME 9)/1:2. The Tower of Kirith Ungol. /Comm./
The name of the sole surviving orc beside Shagrat is Radbug in both C and D (Snaga in RK; see LR Appendix F, p. 409), Radbug being retained in the final story as the name of an orc whose eyes Shagrat says that he had squeezed out (RK p. 182); in C the orcs whom Sam saw running from the gate and shot down as they fled are Lughorn and Ghash > Mazgash (Lagduf and Muzgash in D, as in RK).
/.../ When Gorbag rouses himself from among the corpses on the roof Sam sees in the latter, as in RK (p. 183), that he has in his hand 'a broad-headed spear with a short broken haft'; in C on the other hand he has 'a red [?and shining] sword. It was his own sword. /.../ With this cf. text B (p. 25 and note 9): 'Frodo has to have orc-weapons. The sword is gone.'

SD (HME 9)/1:2. The Tower of Kirith Ungol. /Comm./
Note 11. A few other differences of detail are worth recording. Where in RK (p. 176) the text reads: 'not even the black shadows, lying deep where the red glow could not reach, would shield him long from the night-eyed orcs' D continues: 'that were moving to and fro.
Note 13. Cf. LR Appendix F (RK p. 409): in Orkish Westron 'tark, "man of Gondor", was a debased form of tarkil, a Quenya word used in Westron for one of Numenorean descent'.

SD (HME 9)/1:3. The Land of Shadow.
Presently [three >] two orcs came into view. They were in black without tokens and were armed with bows, a small breed, black-skinned with wide snuffling nostrils, evidently trackers of some kind........ they were talking in some hideous unintelligible speech; but as they passed snuffling among the stones scarcely 20 yards from where the hobbits lurked Frodo saw that one was carrying on his arm a black mail-shirt very like the one that he had abandoned. He sniffed it as went as if to recall its scent. All at once lifting his head he let out a cry. It was answered, and from the other direction (from Kirith Ungol now some miles behind) ... large fighting orcs came up with shields ....... with the Eye. A [? babble] of talk in the common tongue now broke out.'Nar,' said the tracker, 'not a trace further along. Nor o' this smell, but we're not . Somebody that has no business here has been about. Different smell, but a bad smell: we've lost that too, it went up into the mountains.' 'A lot of use you little snufflers are,' grunted a bigger orc. 'I reckon eyes are better than your snotty noses. Have you seen anything?'

SD (HME 9)/1:3. The Land of Shadow
Note 4. A few such details from the earliest form of the conclusion of the chapter may be mentioned. The orc 'slave-drivers' are called 'two of the large fierce uruks, the fighting-orcs', and this seems to be the first time that the word was used (though the name Uruk-hai had appeared long since, VII.409, VIII.22, see also p. 436).

SD (HME 9)/1:10. The Grey Havens.
Merry Gamgee now knows that Bandobras Took 'killed the goblin-king, the reference is to An Unexpected Party in The Hobbit, where it is told that the Bullroarer 'charged the ranks of the goblins of Mount Gram in the Battle of the Green Fields, and knocked their king Golfimbul's head clean off with a wooden club.'

SD (HME 9)/1:11. The Epilogue.
/Gimli's speech/ Moria: I have heard no news. Maybe the foretelling about Durin is not for our time.Dark places still need a lot of cleaning up. I guess it will take a lot of trouble and daring deeds yet to root out the evil creatures from the halls of Moria. For there are certainly plenty of Orcs left in such places. It is not likely that we shall ever get quite rid of them.

SD (HME 9)/3. The Drowning of Anadune. (vi) Lowdham's Report on the Adunaic Language.
/Declination of "Orc" in Adunaic/
uruk, c. 'goblin, orc.' Singular N. uruk, S. urkan, O. uruk- (urku-); Dual urkat; Plural N.urik; S. urkim.

SD (HME 9)/3. The Drowning of Anadune. (i) The third version of The Fall of Numenor. The Last Tales. 1. The Fall of Numenor.
[§1 In the Great Battle, when Fionwe son of Manwe overthrew Morgoth, the three houses of the Men of Beleriand were friends and allies of the Elves, and they wrought many deeds of valour. But men of other kindreds turned to evil and fought for Morgoth, and after the victory of the Lords of the West those that were not destroyed fled back east into Middle-earth. There many of their race wandered still in the unharvested lands, wild and lawless, refusing the summons alike of Fionwe and of Morgoth to aid them in their war. And the evil men who had served Morgoth became their masters; and the creatures of Morgoth that escaped from the ruin of Thangorodrim came among them and cast over them a shadow of fear. For the gods [> Valar] forsook for a time the Men of Middle-earth who had refused their summons and had taken the friends of Morgoth to be their lords; and men were troubled by many evil things that Morgoth had devised in the days of his dominion: demons, and dragons and ill-shapen beasts, and the unclean orcs, that are mockeries of the creatures of Iluvatar; and the lot of men was unhappy.

Fr.160 suppl. a-d.
a. MR (HME 10)/2. The Annals of Aman /AAm/.
/After Melkor's expulsion by Tulkas/ Now Melkor knew of all that was done; for even then he had secret friends and spies among the Maiar whom he had converted to his cause, and of these the chief, as after became known, was Sauron, a great craftsman of the household of Aule. And afar off in the dark places Melkor was filled with hatred, being jealous of the work of his peers, whom he desired to make subject to himself. Therefore he gathered to himself spirits out of the voids of Ea that he had perverted to his service, and he deemed himself strong. And seeing now his time he drew near again unto Arda, and looked down upon it, and the beauty of the Earth in its Spring filled him the more with hate.

b. MR (HME 10)/2. The Annals of Aman. Version II /AAm*/.
This paragraph underwent several modifications /in comp. with AAm/: Now Melkor knew all that was done; for even then he had secret friends among the Maiar, whom he had converted to his cause, whether in the first playing of the Ainulindale or afterwards in Ea. Of these the chief, as afterwards became known, was Sauron, a great craftsman of the household of Aule. Thus far off in the dark places of Ea, to which he had retreated, Melkor was filled with new hatred, being jealous of the work of his peers, whom he desired to make subject to himself. Therefore he had gathered to himself spirits out of the voids of Ea who served him, until he deemed that he was strong; and seeing now his time he drew near to Arda again; and he looked down upon it, and the beauty of the Earth in its Spring filled him with wonder, but because it was not his, he resolved to destroy it.

c. MR (HME 10)/2. The Annals of Aman. /AAm/.
For one thousand years of the Trees the Valar dwelt in bliss in Valinor beyond the Mountains of Aman, and all Middle-earth lay in a twilight under the stars. Thither the Valar seldom came, save only Yavanna and Orome; and Yavanna often would walk there in the shadows, grieving because all the growth and promise of the Spring of Arda was checked. And she set a sleep upon many fair things that had arisen in the Spring, both tree and herb and beast and bird, so that they should not age but should wait for a time of awakening that yet should he. But Melkor dwelt in Utumno, and he slept not, but watched, and laboured; and the evil things that he had perverted walked abroad, and the dark and slumbering woods were haunted by monsters and shapes of dread. And in Utumno he wrought the race of demons whom the Elves after named the Balrogs. But these came not yet from the gates of Utumno, because of the watchfulness of Orome.
/Comm. to §30/. In AAm there is now recounted the laying by Yavanna of a sleep on living things that had awoken in the Spring of Arda, of which there is no trace in QS (or in the later rewritings). The making of the Balrogs is then mentioned; and while in AAm (§17) the account of Melkor's 'host', spirits 'out of the voids of Ea' and 'secret friends and spies among the Maiar', is fuller than in the other tradition at any stage, the Balrogs are still firmly stated to be demons of his own making, and moreover to have been made in Utumno at this time. On the conception of Balrogs in AAm see further under §§42-5 / Fr.161/, 50 in this commentary, and especially p. 79, §30 / Fr.160 suppl.d/.

d. MR (HME 10)/2. The Annals of Aman. Version II /AAm*/.
But Melkor dwelt in Utumno, and he did not sleep, but watched and laboured; and whatsoever good Yavanna worked in the lands he undid if he could, and the evil things that he had perverted walked far abroad, and the dark and slumbering woods were haunted by monsters and shapes of dread. And in Utumno he multiplied the race of the evil spirits that followed him, the Umaiar, of whom the chief were those demons whom the Elves afterwards named the Balrogath. But they did not yet come forth from the gates of Utumno because of their fear of Orome.
The latter part of this passage is of much interest as showing a marked development from the idea that Melkor 'made' the Balrogs at this time (see p. 78 / Fr.160 suppl.c, Comm./). They now become 'evil spirits (Umaiar) that followed him' - but he could 'multiply' them. The term Umaiar, not met before, stands to Maiar as Uvanimor to Vanimor (see /HME/ IV.293, footnote). ... and there would go a-hunting under the stars. He had great love of horses and of hounds, but all beasts were in his thought, and he hunted only the monsters and fell creatures of Melkor. If he descried them afar or his great hounds got wind of them, then his white horse, Nahar, shone like silver as it ran through the shadows, and the sleeping earth trembled at the beat of his golden hooves. And at the mort Orome would blow his great horn, until the mountains shook... mort: the horn-call blown at the kill. ... and trusting ever to his slaves to do his evil work. [his slaves and creatures, AAm].

MR (HME 10)/2. The Annals of Aman /AAm /
Year 1085 And when the Elves had dwelt in the world five and thirty Years of the Valar (which is like unto three hundred and thirty-five of our years) it chanced that Orome rode to Endon in his hunting, and he turned north by the shores of Helkar and passed under the shadows of the Orokarni, the Mountains of the East. And on a sudden Nahar set up a great neighing and then stood still. And Orome wondered and sat silent, and it seemed to him that in the quiet of the land under the stars he heard afar off many voices singing.
Thus it was that the Valar found at last, as it were by chance, those whom they had so long awaited /i.e., the Elves/. And when Orome looked upon them he was filled with wonder, as though they were things unforeseen and unimagined; and he loved the Quendi, and named them Eldar, the people of the stars. The original manuscript page was interpolated at this point, a passage being written in the-margin as follows:
Yet by after-knowledge the masters of lore say sadly that Orome was not, mayhap, the first of the Great Ones to look upon the Elves. for Melkor was on the watch, and his spies were many. And it is thought that lurking near his servants had led astray some of the Quendi that ventured afield, and they took them as captives to Utumno, and there enslaved them. Of these slaves it is held came the Orkor that were afterward chief foes of the Eldar. And Melkor's lies were soon abroad, so that whispers were heard among the Quendi, warning them that if any of their kindred passed away into the shadows and were seen no more, they must beware of a fell huntsman on a great horse, for he it was that carried them off to devour them. Hence it was that at the approach of Orome many of the Quendi fled and hid themselves.
The original text then continues, with a new date 1086, 'Swiftly Orome rode back to Valinor and brought tidings to the Valar' (see §46 below). But the interpolated passage just given was subsequently replaced on a new page by the following long and important passage §§43 - 5 (found in the typescript as typed):
Yet many of the Quendi were adread at his coming. This was the doing of Melkor. For by after-knowledge the masters of lore say that Melkor, ever watchful, was first aware of the awakening of the Quendi, and sent shadows and evil spirits to watch and waylay them. So it came to pass, some years ere the coming of Orome, that if any of the Elves strayed far abroad, alone or few together, they would often vanish and never return; and the Quendi said that the Hunter had caught them, and they were afraid. Even so, in the most ancient songs of our people, of which some echoes are remembered still in the West, we hear of the shadow-shapes that walked in the hills about Kuivienen, or would pass suddenly over the stars; and of the dark Rider upon his wild horse that pursued those that wandered to take them and devour them. Now Melkor greatly hated and feared the riding of Orome, and either verily he sent his dark servants as riders, or he set lying whispers abroad, for the purpose that the Quendi should shun Orome, if ever haply they met.
Thus it was that when Nahar neighed and Orome indeed came among them, some of the Quendi hid themselves, and some fled and were lost. But those that had the courage to stay perceived swiftly that the Great Rider was noble and fair and no shape out of Darkness; for the Light of Aman was in his face, and all the noblest of the Quendi were drawn towards it. But of those hapless who were ensnared by Melkor little is known of a certainty. For who of the living hath descended into the pits of Utumno, or hath explored the darkness of the counsels of Melkor? Yet this is held true by the wise of Eressea: that all those of the Quendi that came into the hands of Melkor, ere Utumno was broken, were put there in prison, and by slow arts of cruelty and wickedness were corrupted and enslaved. Thus did Melkor breed the hideous race of the Orkor in envy and mockery of the Eldar, of whom they were afterwards the bitterest foes. For the Orkor had life and multiplied after the manner of the Children of Iluvatar; and naught that had life of its own, nor the semblance thereof, could ever Melkor make since his rebellion in the Ainulindale before the Beginning: so say the wise. And deep in their dark hearts the Orkor loathed the Master whom they served in fear, the maker only of their misery. This maybe was the vilest deed of Melkor and the most hateful to Eru.
/Comm./ (§42 - 5 The origin of the Orcs. The first appearance of the idea that their origin was connected with the Elves is in QS §18 / Fr.102/, and later in QS (§62) / Fr.103a/ it is said that when Morgoth returned to Middle-earth after the destruction of the Trees he brought into being the race of the Orcs, and they grew and multiplied in the bowels of the earth. These Orcs Morgoth made in envy and mockery of the Elves, and they were made of stone, but their hearts of hatred. (For my father's changing views concerning the time of the origin of the Orcs in the chronology of the Elder Days see /HME/ IV.314, /HME/ V.238. /Frr.92, 103a/) In the interpolation into the manuscript of AAm and its subsequent rewriting and extension (pp. 72 - 4 /see this Fr., above, §42/) there appears, together with the story of the Rider who was rumoured to carry off the Quendi if they strayed, the theory that Melkor bred the Orcs (here called Orkor) 'in envy and mockery of the Eldar' from Quendi enslaved in the east of Middle-earth before ever Orome came upon them. It is explicit (§45) that Melkor could make nothing that had life of its own since his rebellion; but this is in sharp contradiction to §30 / Fr.160 suppl.c/, where it is said that 'in Utumno he wrought the race of demons whom the Elves after named the Balrogs'. I do not think that the interpolation in which the former of these statements appears was made after any very long interval: my father's views on this subject seem to have been changing swiftly, and a different account of the origin of the Balrogs is found in the soon abandoned type- script which I have called AAm* (see p. 79, §30 / Fr.160 suppl.d/). The retention of the statement in §30, despite its contradiction to that in §45, was no doubt due to oversight, and both appear in the main typescript of AAm. - See further on the question of the origin of the Orcs p. 123, §127 / Fr.162 b/, and pp. 408 ff. / Fr.168/ § 43 Against the middle portion of this paragraph is a note in the margin: 'Alter this. Orcs are not Elvish.' See pp. 408 ff. / Fr.168/.

MR (HME 10)/2. The Annals of Aman /AAm/
a. [§ 127]
/After the Trees' destruction and the fight with Ungoloint/. Then Morgoth being freed gathered again all his servants that he could find, and he delved anew his vast vaults and his dungeons in that place which the Noldor after called Angband, and above them he reared the reeking towers of Thangorodrim. There countless became the hosts of his beasts and his demons; and thence there now came forth in hosts beyond count the fell race of the Orkor, that had grown and multiplied in the bowels of the earth like a plague. These creatures Morgoth bred in envy and mockery of the Eldar. In form (5) they were like unto the Children of Iluvatar, yet foul to look upon; for they were bred (6) in hatred, and with hatred they were filled; and he loathed the things that he had wrought, and with loathing they served him. Their voices were as the clashing of stones, and they laughed not save only at torment and cruel deeds. The Glamhoth, host of tumult, the Noldor called them. (Orcs we may name them; for in days of old they were strong and fell as demons. Yet they were not of demon kind, but children (7) of earth corrupted by Morgoth, and they could be slain or destroyed by the valiant with weapons of war. [But indeed a darker tale some yet tell in Eressea, saying that the Orcs were verily in their beginning of the Quendi themselves, a kindred of the Avari unhappy whom Morgoth cozened, and then made captive, and so enslaved them, and so brought them utterly to ruin. *For, saith Pengolod, Melkor could never since the Ainulindale' make of his own aught that had life or the semblance of life, and still less might he do so after his treachery in Valinor and the fullness of his own corruption.](8) Quoth AElfwine.) *[footnote to the text] In the Annals of Beleriand it is said that this he did in the Dark ere ever the Quendi were found by Orome.
Note 5. This passage was emended from the original text, which read thus: 'There countless became the hosts of his beasts and his demons; and he brought now into being the fell race of the Orkor, and they grew and multiplied in the bowels of the earth like a plague. These creatures Morgoth made in envy and mockery of the Eldar. Therefore in form...
Note 6. 'bred' is an emendation of 'made'.
Note 7. 'children' is an emendation of 'a spawn'.
Note 8. This passage, from 'But indeed a darker tale...' and including the footnote, was struck out at a later time than the changes given in notes 5 - 7 and perhaps in revision of the text before the making of the typescript, in which it does not appear. The whole addition by AElfwine is enclosed within brackets as originally written.

b. /Comm./ to §127 The origin of the Orcs. In QS (§62 / Fr.103a/) the idea had already arisen that the Orcs originated in mockery of the Elves, but not yet that the Orcs were in any other way associated with them: they were a 'creation' of Morgoth's own, 'made of stone', and he brought them into being when he returned to Middle-earth. As AAm was first written (see notes 5 - 7 above / Fr.162a, Notes 5-7/) this view still held; the word 'made' was still used - though not the words 'made of stone'. But in AElfwine's note that follows (and which was written continuously with what precedes) they are called 'a spawn of earth corrupted by Morgoth'; and the 'darker tale' told in Eressea - that the Orcs were in their beginning enslaved and corrupted Elves (Avari) - is certainly the first appearance of this idea, contradicting what precedes, or perhaps rather at this stage presenting an alternative theory. It is ascribed to Pengolod; and Pengolod argues to AElfwine that Melkor could actually make nothing that had life, but could only corrupt what was already living. The implication of this second theory would probably, though not necessarily, be that the Orcs came into being much earlier, before the Captivity of Melkor; and that this implication is present is suggested by the footnote reference to the Annals of Beleriand - meaning the last version of these Annals, the Grey Annals, companion to the Annals of Aman: 'it is said that this he did in the Dark ere ever the Quendi were found by Orome.' At this point my father went back to an earlier part of AAm (p. 72, §42 / Fr.161/) and interpolated the passage 'Yet by after- knowledge ...', where the idea of the capture of wandering Quendi in their earliest days is filled out, though it remains only a supposition of the 'masters of lore'. Perhaps at the same time he emended the present passage, changing 'he brought now into being' to 'thence there now came forth in hosts beyond count', 'made' to 'bred', and 'a spawn of earth' to 'children of earth'. He then (as I conjecture) developed the interpolation at the earlier point much more fully (§§43 - 5 / Fr.161/), where the idea becomes less a supposition than a certainty of history: the powerlessness of Melkor to make living things is a known fact ('so say the wise'). Finally, at a later time (see note 8), he cut out the whole passage at the end of §127 beginning 'But indeed a darker tale some yet tell in Eressea ...' - either because he only then observed that it had been superseded by §§43 - 5 and was in any case not in the appropriate place, or because he rejected this theory of the origin of the Orcs. See further p. 127, §127 / Fr.162 c/.

Fr. 162
The word for in 'Orcs we may name them; for in days of old they were strong and fell as demons. Yet they were not of demon kind' (an observation of AElfwine's) suggests that Orcs is Old English (cf. orc-neas in Beowulf line 112), conveniently similar to the Elvish word. This would explain why AElfwine said, in effect, 'We may call them Orcs, because they were strong and fell as demons, even though they were not in fact demons.' In a letter of my father's written on 25 April 1954 (Letters no.144) he said that the word Orc 'is as far as I am concerned actually derived from Old English orc "demon", but only because of its phonetic suitability' (and also: 'Orcs... are nowhere clearly stated to be of any particular origin. But since they are servants of the Dark Power, and later of Sauron, neither of whom could, or would, produce living things, they must be "corruptions"').
c. /Later Comm./ Among the notes and corrections written by my father on the typescript in this section of AAm, not all of which need be recorded, there are several indicating proposed extensions of the narrative.
/.../ §127 Against the opening of this paragraph my father wrote: 'The making of this fortress as a guard against a landing from the West should come earlier. See p. 156, §12. In the typescript the passage concerning the Orcs ran as it stands in the text printed from the manuscript on p. 109 only as far as 'they could be slain or destroyed by the valiant with weapons of war'; the remainder of the paragraph had been struck out in the manuscript (note 8, p. 121 / Fr.162a. Note 8/), apart from the words 'Quoth AElfwine' at the end (which the typist did not notice and omitted, ending the paragraph at 'weapons of war' without closing the brackets). Against the first part of the passage my father wrote an X on the typescript and a brief illegible direction of which the first word might be 'cut', with a reference to the passage on the subject in §45. It is not clear what precisely was to be cut (if I read the word correctly), but seeing that he noted on the typescript against the earlier passage (p. 80, §43 / Fr.161/): 'Alter this. Orcs are not Elvish', it seems likely that the same objection applied here (see further pp. 408 ff. / Fr.168/). - He rectified the typist's error in omitting the words 'Quoth AElfwine' by cutting out the words '(Orcs we may name them; for', so that the text reads: 'The Glamhoth, host of tumult, the Noldor called them. In days of old they were strong and fell as demons ...' This was perhaps done without consulting the manuscript.

 MR (HME 10)/3:1:3. The Later Quenta Silmarillion. /LQ 1+ LQ 2 /. The First Phase. Of the Coming of the Elves.
In all this time, since Melkor overthrew the Lamps, the Middle-earth east of the Mountains was  without light. While the Lamps had shone, growth began there which now was checked, because all was  again dark. But already the oldest living things had arisen: in the sea the great weeds, and on the  earth the shadow of great trees; and in the valleys of the night-clad hills there were dark  creatures old and strong. In those lands and forests Orome would often hunt; and there too at times  Yavanna came, singing sorrowfully; for she was grieved at the darkness of Middle-earth and ill content that it was forsaken. But the other Valar came seldom thither; and in the North Melkor built his strength, and gathered his demons about him. These were the first made of his creatures: their hearts were of fire, but they were cloaked in darkness, and terror went before them; they had whips of flame. Balrogs they were named by the Noldor in later days. And in that dark time Melkor made many other monsters of divers shapes and kinds that long troubled the world; yet the Orcs were  not made until he had looked upon the Elves, and he made them in mockery of the Children of  Iluvatar. His realm spread now ever southward over the Middle-earth.  
/Comm./ § 18 In AAm § 30 (p. 70 / Fr.160 suppl.c/) it is said that Melkor 'wrought' the Balrogs in  Utumno during the long darkness after the fall of the Lamps; but in an interpolation to AAm there  enters the view that Melkor, after his rebellion, could make nothing that had life of its own (§45,  see pp. 74, 78 / Fr.161/), and in AAm*, the second version of the opening of AAm (p. 79, §30 /  Fr.160 suppl.d/), the Balrogs become the chief of 'the evil spirits that followed him, the Umaiar',  whom at that time he multiplied. The statement in QS §18 / Fr.102/ that the Balrogs were 'the first  made of his creatures' survived through all the texts of the later revision of the Quenta, but in  the margin of one of the copies of LQ 2 my father wrote: 'See Valaquenta for true account.' This is  a reference to the passage which appears in the published Silmarillion on p. 31:  For of the Maiar many were drawn to his splendour in the days of his greatness, and remained in  that allegiance down into his darkness; and others he corrupted afterwards to his service with lies  and treacherous gifts. Dreadful among these spirits were the Valaraukar, the scourges of fire that  in Middle-earth were called the Balrogs, demons of terror. The actual text of LQ 2 my father  emended at this time very hastily to read: These were the (ealar) spirits who first adhered to him  in the days of his splendour, and became most like him in his corruption: their hearts were of  fire, but they were cloaked in darkness, and terror went before them; they had whips of flame.  Balrogs they were named by the Noldor in later days. And in that dark time Melkor bred many other  monsters of divers shapes and kinds that long troubled the world; and his realm spread now ever  southward over the Middle-earth. But the Orks, mockeries and perversions of the Children of Eru,  did not appear until after the Awakening of the Elves.  There is a footnote to the word ealar in this passage: 'spirit' (not incarnate, which was fea, S  fae). eala 'being'. On the origin of the Orcs in AAm (and especially with respect to the word  'perversions' in the passage just given) see pp. 78 / Fr.161/, 123 - 4 / Fr.162b/. Orks was my father's late spelling.

 MR (HME 10)/3:1:7. The Later Quenta Silmarillion. /LQ 1+ LQ 2 /. The First Phase. Of the Flight of Noldoli. /Comm./  
 The textual history of this chapter is relatively simple (for the late rewriting just referred to,  which extends some little way into it, see pp. 292 ff.). The original chapter in QS (V.232 - 8 /see Fr.103a/, where it is numbered 5) was corrected, not very extensively, at the time of the 1951 revision, and as corrected was typed in the amanuensis text LQ 1. This received no corrections at  all, but on the later amanuensis typescript LQ 2 my father made a few changes, mostly the regular  alteration of names. In this case I do not give the revised text, but record individually the significant changes made to QS. /.../
 §62 /see Fr.103a/. The passage concerning the Orcs, from 'he brought into being the race of the Orcs' to the end of the paragraph, was rewritten as follows:  he brought into being the race of the Orkor,* and they grew and multiplied in the bowels of the  earth. These creatures Morgoth made in envy and mockery of the Elves. Therefore in form they were  like unto the Children of Iluvatar, yet foul to look upon; for they were made in hatred, and with  hatred they were filled. Their voices were as the clashing of stones, and they laughed not, save  only at torment and cruel deeds. Clamhoth, the hosts of tumult, the Noldor called them.
 *[footnote to the text) In Gnomish speech this name is orch of one, yrch of many. Orcs we may name  them, for in the ancient days they were strong and fell as demons; yet they were of other kind, a  spawn of earth corrupted by the power of Morgoth, and they could be slain or destroyed by the  valiant: quoth AElfwine.
 This is closely related to AAm §127, as that was first written (see pp.120-1, notes 5-7 / Fr.162a,  Notes 5-7/, and commentary p. 123 / Fr.162b/), and contains the same conjunction of two apparently  different theories, that the Orcs were 'made' by Morgoth and that they were 'a spawn of earth'  corrupted by him. My father then altered the passage by cutting out AElfwine's footnote to the word  Orkor but adding a closely similar passage in the body of the text, thus:  Glamhoth, the hosts of tumult, the Noldor called them. Orcs we may name them,* for in ancient days  they were strong and fell as demons. Yet they were not of demon-kind, but a spawn of earth  corrupted by Morgoth, and they could be slain or destroyed by the valiant with weapons of war.  
 *[footnote to the text] Quoth AElfwine.  This rearrangement is puzzling, for AElfwine's contribution can hardly be limited to the words  'Orcs we may name them' (see p. 124 / Fr.162b/); but perhaps by placing the asterisk at this point  my father meant to indicate that all that follows it was added by AElfwine. On the LQ typescript he  changed it again, putting the whole passage from 'Orcs we may name them' into a footnote.  On the QS manuscript he scribbled later, against the first part of the passage, concerning the  making of the Orcs: 'Alter this. See Annals.' This refers to the change introduced into AAm whereby  the Orcs had been bred from captured Quendi many ages before: see the commentary on AAm §127 (p.  123) / Fr.162b/.

 MR (HME 10)/3:2. The Later Quenta Silmarillion. /LQ 1+ LQ 2 /. The Second Phase. Laws and Customs  among the Eldar.  
 At the end of the manuscript of Laws and Customs among the Eldar are several pages of roughly  written 'Notes', and I append here a portion of this material.     questions were also asked concerning the fate and death of Men. All [?read Also] concerning other  'speaking', and therefore 'reasonable', kinds: Ents, Dwarves, Trolls, Orcs - and the speaking of  beasts such as Huan, or the Great Eagles.

 MR (HME 10)/5:6. Myths Transformed. Melkor Morgoth. /Autocomm./  
 This text, entitled Melkor with Morgoth written beneath, is from the same collection as is text  III (found in a newspaper dated April 1959), and was written on four slips made from further copies  of the same Merton College documents dated June 1955 as is the draft A of the Athrabeth (pp.  350-2). The slip on which text III is written carries also preliminary drafting for the present  essay on Melkor.  It is notable that text VI begins with a reference to 'Finrod and Andreth', which was therefore in  existence, at least in some form.
 Melkor Morgoth
 Melkor must be made far more powerful in original nature (cf. 'Finrod and Andreth'). The greatest  power under Eru (sc. the greatest created power) (1). (He was to make/ devise / begin; Manwe (a  little less great) was to improve, carry out, complete.)
 Later, he must not be able to be controlled or 'chained' by all the Valar combined. Note that in  the early age of Arda he was alone able to drive the Valar out of Middle-earth into retreat.  The war against Utumno was only undertaken by the Valar with reluctance, and without hope of real  victory, but rather as a covering action or diversion, to enable them to get the Quendi out of his  sphere of influence. But Melkor had already pro-gressed some way towards becoming 'the Morgoth, a  tyrant (or central tyranny and will), + his agents'. (2) Only the total contained the old power of  the complete Melkor; so that if 'the Morgoth' could be reached or temporarily separated from his  agents he was much more nearly controllable and on a power-level with the Valar. The Valar find  that they can deal with his agents (sc. armies, Balrogs, etc.) piecemeal. So that they come at last  to Utumno itself and find that 'the Morgoth' has no longer for the moment sufficient 'force' (in  any sense) to shield himself from direct personal contact. Manwe at last faces Melkor again, as he  has not done since he entered Arda. Both are amazed: Manwe to perceive the decrease in Melkor as a  person, Melkor to perceive this also from his own point of view: he has now less personal force  than Manwe, and can no longer daunt him with his gaze.  Either Manwe must tell him so or he must himself suddenly realize (or both) that this has  happened: he is 'dispersed'. But the lust to have creatures under him, dominated, has become  habitual and necessary to Melkor, so that even if the process was reversible (possibly was by  absolute and unfeigned self-abasement and repentance only) he cannot bring himself to do it.* As  with all other characters there must be a trembling moment when it is in the balance: he nearly  repents - and does not, and becomes much wickeder, and more foolish.
 Possibly (and he thinks it possible) he could now at that moment be humiliated against his own  will and 'chained' - if and before his dispersed forces reassemble. So - as soon as he has mentally  rejected repentance - he (just like Sauron after-wards on this model) makes a mockery of  self-abasement and repentance. From which actually he gets a kind of perverted pleasure as in  desecrating something holy - [for the mere contemplating of the possibility of genuine repentance,  if that did not come specially then as a direct grace from Eru, was at least one last flicker of  his true primeval nature.] (3). He feigns remorse and repentance. He actually kneels before Manwe  and surrenders - in the first instance to avoid being chained by the Chain Angainor, which once  upon him he fears would not ever be able to be shaken off. But also suddenly he has the idea of  penetrating the vaunted fastness of Valinor, and ruining it. So he offers to become 'the least of  the Valar' and servant of them each and all, to help (in advice and skill) in repairing all the  evils and hurts he has done. It is this offer which seduces or deludes Manwe - Manwe must be shown  to have his own inherent fault (though not sin):** he has become engrossed (partly out of sheer  fear of Melkor, partly out of desire to control him) in amendment, healing, re-ordering - even  'keeping the status quo' - to the loss of all creative power and even to weakness in dealing with  difficult and perilous situations. Against the advice of some of the Valar (such as Tulkas) he  grants Melkor's prayer.  Melkor is taken back to Valinor going last (save for Tulkas*** who follows bearing Angainor and  clinking it to remind Melkor).  But at the council Melkor is not given immediate freedom. The Valar in assembly will not tolerate  this. Melkor is remitted to Mandos (to stay there in 'reclusion' and meditate, and complete his  repentance - and also his plans for redress).(4)
 Then he begins to doubt the wisdom of his own policy, and would have rejected it all and burst out  into flaming rebellion - but he is now absolutely isolated from his agents and in enemy territory.  He cannot. Therefore he swallows the bitter pill (but it greatly increases his hate, and he ever  afterward accused Manwe of being faithless).
The rest of the story, with Melkor's release, and permission to attend the Council sitting at the  feet of Manwe (after the pattern of evil counsellors in later tales, which it could be said derive  from this primeval model?), can then proceed more or less as already told.
In this short essay it is seen that in his reflections on the nature of Melkor, the vastness of  his primeval power and its 'dispersion', my father had been led to propose certain important  alterations in the narrative of the legends as told in the Quenta Silmarillion (pp. 161, 186) and  in the Annals of Aman (pp. 75, 80, 93). In the narrative as it stood, and as it remained, (5) there  was no suggestion that Melkor feigned repentance when (no longer able to 'daunt him with his gaze')  he faced Manwe in Utumno - already harbouring 'the idea of penetrating the vaunted fastness of  Valinor, and ruining it'. On the contrary, 'Tulkas stood forth as the champion of the Valar and  wrestled with him and cast him upon his face, and bound him with the chain Angainor' (6) (an  ancient element, going back to the richly pictorial and 'primitive' account in the story of 'The Chaining of Melko' in The Book of Lost Tales, I.100-4). Moreover, in the present text it was now,  defeated at Utumno, that Melkor offered to become 'the least of the Valar', and to aid them in the  redress of all the evils that he had brought to pass, whereas in the narratives he did this when he  came before the Valar after he had endured the ages of his incarcera-tion in Mandos and sued for  pardon. Of Manwe it was said, when Melkor was allowed to go freely about Valinor, that he believed  that his evil was cured: 'for he himself was free from the evil and could not comprehend it'. No  such flaw or 'inherent fault' in Manwe as is described in this essay was suggested; (7) although it  was told that Ulmo, and Tulkas, doubted the wisdom of such clemency (and this too is an element  that goes back to The Book of Lost Tales: 'Such was the doom of Manwe ... albeit Tulkas and  Palurien thought it merciful to peril' (I.105)).
 *[footnote to the text] One of the reasons for his self-weakening is that he has given to his  'creatures', Orcs, Balrogs, etc. power of recuperation and multiplication. So that they will gather  again without further specific orders. Part of his native creative power has gone out into making  an independent evil growth out of his control.
 ** [footnote to the text] Every finite creature must have some weakness: that is some inadequacy  to deal with some situations. It is not sinful when not willed, and when the creature does his best  (even if it is not what should be done) as he sees it - with the conscious intent of serving Eru.
***[footnote to the text] Tulkas represents the good side of 'violence' in the war against evil.  This is an absence of all compromise which will even face apparent evils (such as war) rather than  parley; and does not (in any kind of pride) think that any one less than Eru can redress this, or  rewrite the tale of Arda.
Note 1. Cf. Finrod's words in the Athrabeth (p. 322): 'there is no power conceivable greater than  Melkor save Eru only'.
Note 2. The earliest reference to the idea of the 'dispersion' of Melkor's original power is found  in the Annals of Aman §179 (p. 133): For as he grew in malice, and sent forth from himself the evil  that he conceived in lies and creatures or wickedness, his power passed into them and was  dispersed, and he himself became ever more earth-bound, unwilling to issue from his dark  strongholds. Cf. also Annals §128 (p. 110). - The expression 'the Morgoth' is used several times by Finrod in the Athrabeth.
Note 3. The square brackets were put in after the writing of the passage.
Note 4. 'his plans for redress': i.e. redress of the evils he has brought about.
Note 5. The second passage in QS, in which the pardon of Melkor is recounted (p. 186, §48)was  changed in the final rewriting of Chapter 6: see p. 273, §48. But though :he changed text  introduced the ideas that any complete reversal of the evils brought about by Melkor was  impossible, and that be was 'in his beginning the greatest of the Powers', the narrative was not  altered in respect of changes envisaged in this essay (see note 7).
Note 6. Alteration to the old story of the encounter at Utumno might have entered if QS Chapter 3  (in which this is recounted) had formed a part of the late rewriting that transformed the old  Chapter 6; but see note 7.
Note 7. In the final rewriting of QS Chapter 6 (p. 273, §48) this remained the case (note 5); and  the original story was also retained that it was in Valinor after his imprisonment, not at Utumno,  that Melkor made his promises of service and reparation. This might suggest that the present essay  was written after the new work on QS (almost certainly dating from the end of the 1950s, p. 300),  supporting the idea that the date of the documents on which the essay was written (1955) is  misleading (see p. 385).

 MR (HME 10)/5:7. Myths Transformed. Notes on motives in the Silmarillion. /Autocomm./  
 This essay is found in two forms. The earlier ('A') is a fairly brief text of four pages in  manuscript, titled 'Some notes on the "philosophy" of the Silmarillion' it is rapidly expressed and  does not have a clear ending. The second ('B') is a greatly expanded version of twelve pages, also  in manuscript, of far more careful expression and beginning in fine script, but breaking off  unfinished, indeed in the middle of a sentence. This is titled 'Notes on motives in the  Silmarillion'.  The relation between the two forms is such that for most of its length there is no need to give  any of the text of A, for all of its content is found embedded in B. From the point (p. 401) where  the Valar are condemned for the raising of the Pelori, however, the texts diverge. In B my father  introduced a long palliation of the conduct of the Valar, and the essay breaks off before the  matter of the concluding section of A was reached (see note 6); this is therefore given at the end of B.
The text of B was subsequently divided and lettered as three distinct sections, here numbered (i),  (ii), and (iii).
Notes on motives in the Silmarillion
Sauron was 'greater', effectively, in the Second Age than Morgoth at the end of the First. Why?
Because, though he was far smaller by natural stature, he had not yet fallen so low. Eventually he also squandered his power (of being) in the endeavour to gain control of others. But he was not obliged to expend so much of himself. To gain domination over Arda, Morgoth had let most of his being pass into the physical constituents of the Earth - hence all things that were born on Earth and lived on and by it, beasts or plants or incarnate spirits, were liable to be 'stained'. Morgoth at the time of the War of the Jewels had become permanently 'incarnate': for this reason he was afraid, and waged the war almost entirely by means of devices, or of subordinates and dominated creatures.
Sauron, however, inherited the 'corruption' of Arda, and only spent his (much more limited) power on the Rings; for it was the creatures of earth, in their minds and wills, that he desired to dominate. In this way Sauron was also wiser than Melkor-Morgoth. Sauron was not a beginner of discord; and he probably knew more of the 'Music' than did Melkor, whose mind had always been filled with his own plans and devices, and gave little attention to other things. The time of Melkor's greatest power, therefore, was in the physical beginnings of the World; a vast demiurgic lust for power and the achievement of his own will and designs, on a great scale. And later after things had become more stable, Melkor was more interested in and capable of dealing with a volcanic  eruption, for example, than with (say) a tree. It is indeed probable that he was simply unaware of  the minor or more delicate productions of Yavanna: such as small flowers. *
Thus, as 'Morgoth', when Melkor was confronted by the existence of other inhabitants of Arda, with  other wills and intelligences, he was enraged by the mere fact of their existence, and his only  notion of dealing with them was by physical force, or the fear of it. His sole ultimate object was  their destruction. Elves, and still more Men, he despised because of their 'weakness': that is  their lack of physical force, or power over 'matter'; but he was also afraid of them. He was aware,  at any rate originally when still capable of rational thought, that he could not 'annihilate'**  them: that is, destroy their being; but their physical life', and incarnate form became  increasingly to his mind the only thing that was worth considering. *** Or he became so far  advanced in Lying that he lied even to himself, and pretended that he could destroy them and rid  Arda of them altogether. Hence his endeavour always to break wills and subordinate them to or  absorb them into his own will and being, before destroying their bodies. This was sheer nihilism,  and negation its one ultimate object: Morgoth would no doubt, if he had been victorious, have  ultimately destroyed even his own 'creatures', such as the Orcs, when they had served his sole  purpose in using them: the destruction of Elves and Men. Melkor's final impotence and despair lay  in this: that whereas the Valar (and in their degree Elves and Men) could still love 'Arda Marred',  that is Arda with a Melkor-ingredient, and could still heal this or that hurt, or produce from its  very marring, from its state as it was, things beautiful and lovely, Melkor could do nothing with  Arda, which was not from his own mind and was interwoven with the work and thoughts of others: even  left alone he could only have gone raging on till all was levelled again into a formless chaos. And  yet even so he would have been defeated, because it would still have 'existed' independent of his  own mind, and a world in potential.
Sauron had never reached this stage of nihilistic madness. He did not object to the existence of  the world, so long as he could do what he liked with it. He still had the relics of positive  purposes, that descended from the good of the nature in which he began: it had been his virtue (and  therefore also the cause of his fall, and of his relapse) that he loved order and co-ordination,  and disliked all confusion and wasteful friction.(It was the apparent will and power of Melkor to  effect his designs quickly and masterfully that had first attracted Sauron to him.) Sauron had, in  fact, been very like Saruman, and so still understood him quickly and could guess what he would be  likely to think and do, even without the aid of palantiri or of spies; whereas Gandalf eluded and  puzzled him. But like all minds of this cast, Sauron's love (originally) or (later) mere  understanding of other individual intelligences was correspondingly weaker; and though the only  real good in, or rational motive for, all this ordering and planning and organization was the good  of all inhabitants of Arda (even admitting Sauron's right to be their supreme lord), his 'plans',  the idea coming from his own isolated mind, became the sole object of his will, and an end, the  End, in itself. ****
Morgoth had no 'plan': unless destruction and reduction to nil of a world in which he had only a  share can be called a 'plan'. But this is, of course, a simplification of the situation. Sauron had  not served Morgoth, even in his last stages, without becoming infected by his lust for destruction,  and his hatred of God (which must end in nihilism). Sauron could not, of course, be a 'sincere'  atheist. Though one of the minor spirits created before the world, he knew Eru, according to his  measure. He probably deluded himself with the notion that the Valar (including Melkor) having  failed, Eru had simply abandoned Eä, or at any rate Arda, and would not concern himself with it any  more. It would appear that he interpreted the 'change of the world' at the Downfall of Numenor,  when Aman was removed from the physical world, in this sense: Valar (and Elves) were removed from  effective control, and Men under God's curse and wrath. If he thought about the Istari, especially  Saruman and Gandalf, he imagined them as emissaries from the Valar, seeking to establish their lost  power again and 'colonize' Middle-earth, as a mere effort of defeated imperialists (without  knowledge or sanction of Eru). His cynicism, which (sincerely) regarded the motives of Manwe as  precisely the same as his own, seemed fully justified in Saruman. Gandalf he did not understand.  But certainly he had already become evil, and therefore stupid, enough to imagine that his  different behaviour was due simply to weaker intelligence and lack of firm masterful purpose. He  was only a rather cleverer Radagast - cleverer, because it is more profitable (more productive of  power) to become absorbed in the study of people than of animals.
Sauron was not a 'sincere' atheist, but he preached atheism, because it weakened resistance to  himself (and he had ceased to fear God's action in Arda). As was seen in the case of Ar-Pharazôn.  But there was seen the effect of Melkor upon Sauron: he spoke of Melkor in Melkor's own terms: as a  god, or even as God. This may have been the residue of a state which was in a sense a shadow of  good: the ability once in Sauron at least to admire or admit the superiority of a being other than  himself. Melkor, and still more Sauron himself afterwards, both profited by this darkened shadow of  good and the services of 'worshippers'. But it may be doubted whether even such a shadow of good  was still sincerely operative in Sauron by that time. His cunning motive is probably best expressed  thus. To wean one of the God-fearing from their allegiance it is best to propound another unseen  object of allegiance and another hope of benefits; propound to him a Lord who will sanction what he  desires and not forbid it. Sauron, apparently a defeated rival for world-power, now a mere hostage,  can hardly propound himself; but as the former servant and disciple of Melkor, the worship of  Melkor will raise him from hostage to high priest. But though Sauron's whole true motive was the  destruction of the Numenoreans, this was a particular matter of revenge upon Ar-Pharazon, for humiliation. Sauron (unlike Morgoth) would have been content for the Númenóreans to exist, as his  own subjects, and indeed he used a great many of them that he corrupted to his allegiance.    
* [footnote to the text] If such things were forced upon his attention, he was angry and hated them, as coming from other minds than his own.
** [bracketed note inserted into the text] Melkor could not, of course, 'annihilate' anything of matter, he could only ruin or destroy or corrupt the forms given to matter by other minds in their  subcreative activities.
*** [footnote without indication of reference in the text] For this reason he himself came to fear 'death' - the destruction of his assumed bodily form - above everything, and sought to avoid any  kind injury to his own form.
**** [Footnote to the text] But his capability of corrupting other minds, and even engaging their  service, was a residue from the fact that his original desire for 'order' had really envisaged the  good estate, specially physical well-being) of his 'subjects'.  No one, not even one of the Valar, can read the mind of other 'equal beings': * that is one cannot  'see' them or comprehend them fully and directly by simple inspection. One can deduce much of their  thought, from general comparisons leading to conclusions concerning the nature and tendencies of  minds and thought, and from particular knowledge of individuals, and special circumstances. But  this is no more reading or inspection of another mind than is deduction concerning the contents of  a closed room, or events taken place out of sight. Neither is so-called 'thought-transference' a process of mind-reading: this is but the reception, and interpretation by the receiving mind, of  the impact of a thought, or thought-pattern, emanating from another mind, which is no more the mind  in full or in itself than is the distant sight of a man running the man himself. Minds can exhibit or reveal themselves to other minds by the action of their own wills (though it is doubtful if,  even when willing or desiring this, a mind can actually reveal itself wholly to any other mind). It  is thus a temptation to minds of greater power to govern or constrain the will of other, and  weaker, minds, so as to induce or force them to reveal themselves. But to force such a revelation,  or to induce it by any lying or deception, even for supposedly 'good' purposes (including the  'good' of the person so persuaded or dominated), is absolutely forbidden. To do so is a crime, and  the 'good' in the purposes of those who commit this crime swiftly becomes corrupted. Much could  thus 'go on behind Manwe's back': indeed the innermost being of all other minds, great and small,  was hidden from him. And with regard to the Enemy, Melkor, in particular, he could not penetrate by  distant mind-sight his thought and purposes, since Melkor remained in a fixed and powerful will to  withhold his mind: which physically expressed took shape in the darkness and shadows that  surrounded him. But Manwe could of course use, and did use, his own great knowledge his vast  experience of things and of persons, his memory of the 'Music', and his own far sight, and the  tidings of his messengers.  He, like Melkor, practically never is seen or heard of outside or far away from his own halls and  permanent residence. Why is this? For no very profound reason. The Government is always in  Whitehall. King Arthur is usually in Camelot or Caerleon and news and adventures come there and  arise there. The 'Elder King' is obviously not going to be finally defeated or destroyed at least  not before some ultimate 'Ragnarek' (1) - which even for us is still in the future, so he can have  no real 'adventures'. But if you keep him at home, the issue of any particular event (since it  cannot then result in a final 'checkmate') can remain in literary suspense. Even to the final war  against Morgoth it is Fionwe son of Manwe who leads out the power of the Valar. When we move out  Manwe it will be the last battle, and the end of the World (or of 'Arda Marred') as the Eldar would  say.
 [Morgoth's staying 'at home' has, as described above, quite a different reason: his fear of being  killed or even hurt (the literary motive is not present, for since he is pitted against the Elder  King, the issue of any one of his enterprises is always in doubt).]  Melkor 'incarnated' himself (as Morgoth) permanently. He did this so as to control the hroa,(2)  the 'flesh' or physical matter of Arda. He attempted to identify himself with it. A vaster and more  perilous, procedure, though of similar sort to the operations of Sauron with the Rings. Thus,  outside the Blessed Realm, all 'matter' was likely to have a 'Melkor ingredient', (3) and those who  had bodies, nourished by the hroa of Arda, had as it were a tendency, small or great, towards  Melkor: they were none of them wholly free of him in their incarnate form, and their bodies had an  effect upon their spirits.
 But in this way Morgoth lost (or exchanged, or transmuted) the greater part of his original 'angelic' powers, of mind and spirit, while gaining a terrible grip upon the physical world. For this reason he had to be fought, mainly by physical force, and enormous material ruin was a probable consequence of any direct combat with him, victorious or otherwise. This is the chief explanation of the constant reluctance of the Valar to come into open battle against Morgoth.
Manwe's task and problem was much more difficult than Gandalf's. Sauron's, relatively smaller,  power was concentrated; Morgoth's vast power was disseminated. The whole of 'Middle-earth' was Morgoth's Ring, though temporarily his attention was mainly upon the North-west. Unless swiftly  successful, War against him might well end in reducing all Middle-earth to chaos, possibly even all  Arda. It is easy to say: 'It was the task and function of the Elder King to govern Arda and make it  possible for the Children of Eru to live in it unmolested.' But the dilemma of the Valar was this:  Arda could only be liberated by a physical battle; but a probable result of such a battle was the  irretrievable ruin of Arda. Moreover, the final eradication of Sauron (as a power directing evil)  was achievable by the destruction of the Ring. No such eradication of Morgoth was possible, since  this required the complete disintegration of the 'matter' of Arda. Sauron's power was not (for  example) in gold as such, but in a particular form or shape made of a particular portion of total  gold. Morgoth's power was disseminated throughout Gold, if nowhere absolute (for he did not create  Gold) it was nowhere absent. (It was this Morgoth-element in matter, indeed, which was a  prerequisite for such 'magic' and other evils as Sauron practised with it and upon it.)  It is quite possible, of course, that certain 'elements' or conditions of matter had attracted  Morgoth's special attention (mainly, unless in the remote past, for reasons of his own plans). For  example, all gold (in Middle-earth) seems to have had a specially 'evil' trend - but not silver.  Water is represented as being almost entirely free of Morgoth. (This, of course, does not mean that  any particular sea, stream, river, well, or even vessel of water could not be poisoned or defiled -  as all things could.)
* [marginal note] All rational minds / spirits deriving direct from Eru are 'equal' -- in order and status - though not necessarily 'coëval' or of like original power.
Note 1. Ragnarok: 'the Doom of the Gods' (Old Norse): see IX.286.
Note 2. hroa: so written here and at the second occurrence below (and in text A), not as elsewhere always hroa, where it means the body of an incarnate being. The word used for 'physical matter' in  Laws and Customs was hron, later changed to orma (p. 2 18 and note 26); in the Commentary on the  Athrabeth and in the 'Glossary' of names the word is erma (pp. 338, 349).
 Note 3. On this sentence see p. 271.
 The Valar 'fade' and become more impotent, precisely in proportion as the shape and constitution  of things becomes more defined and settled. The longer the Past, the more nearly defined the  Future, and the less room for important change (untrammelled action, on a physical plane, that is  not destructive in purpose). The Past, once 'achieved', has become part of the 'Music in being'.
 Only Eru may or can alter the 'Music'. The last major effort, of this demiurgic kind, made by the  Valar was the lifting up of the range of the Pelori to a great height. It is possible to view this  as, if not an actually bad action, at least as a mistaken one. Ulmo disapproved of it. (1) It had  one good, and legitimate, object: the preservation incorrupt of at least a part of Arda. But it  seemed to have a selfish or neglectful (or despairing) motive also; for the effort to preserve the  Elves incorrupt there had proved a failure if they were to be left free: many had refused to come  to the Blessed Realm, many had revolted and left it. Whereas, with regard to Men, Manwe and all the  Valar knew quite well that they could not come to Aman at all; and the longevity (co-extensive with  the life of Arda) of Valar and Eldar was expressly not permitted to Men. Thus the 'Hiding of  Valinor' came near to countering Morgoth's possessiveness by a rival possessiveness, setting up a  private domain of light and bliss against one of darkness and domination: a palace and a pleasaunce  (2) (well-fenced) against a fortress and a dungeon. (3)  This appearance of selfish fainéance in the Valar in the mythology as told is (though I have not  explained it or commented on it) I think only an 'appearance', and one which we are apt to accept  as the truth, since we are all in some degree affected by the shadow and lies of their Enemy, the  Calumniator. It has to be remembered that the 'mythology' is repre-sented as being two stages  removed from a true record: it is based first upon Elvish records and lore about the Valar and  their own dealings with them; and these have reached us (fragmentarily) only through relics of  Numenorean (human) traditions, derived from the Eldar, in the earlier parts, though for later times  supplemented by anthropocentric histories and tales. (4) These, it is true, came down through the  'Faithful' and their descendants in Middle-earth, but could not altogether escape the darkening of  the picture due to the hostility of the rebellious Númenóreans to the Valar.  Even so, and on the grounds of the stories as received, it is possible to view the matter  otherwise. The closing of Valinor against the rebel Noldor (who left it voluntarily and after  warning) was in itself just. But, if we dare to attempt to enter the mind of the Elder King,  assigning motives and finding faults, there are things to remember before we deliver a judgement.  Manwe was the spirit of greatest wisdom and prudence in Arda. He is represented as having had the  greatest knowledge of the Music, as a whole, possessed by any one finite mind; and he alone of all  persons or minds in that time is represented as having the power of direct recourse to and  communication with Eru. He must have grasped with great clarity what even we may perceive dimly:  that it was the essential mode of the process of 'history' in Arda that evil should constantly  arise, and that out of it new good should constantly come. One especial aspect of this is the  strange way in which the evils of the Marrer, or his inheritors, are turned into weapons against  evil. If we consider the situation after the escape of Morgoth and the reestablish-ment of his  abode in Middle-earth, we shall see that the heroic Noldor were the best possible weapon with which  to keep Morgoth at bay, virtually besieged, and at any rate fully occupied, on the northern fringe  of Middle-earth, without provoking him to a frenzy of nihilistic destruction. And in the meanwhile,  Men, or the best elements in Mankind, shaking off his shadow, came into contact with a people who  had actually seen and experi-enced the Blessed Realm.  In their association with the warring Eldar Men were raised to their fullest achievable stature,  and by the two marriages the transference to them, or infusion into Mankind, of the noblest  Elf-strain was accomplished, in readiness for the still distant, but inevitably approaching, days  when the Elves would 'fade'.
 The last intervention with physical force by the Valar, ending in the breaking of Thangorodrim,  may then be viewed as not in fact reluctant or even unduly delayed, but timed with precision. The  intervention came before the annihilation of the Eldar and the Edain. Morgoth though locally  triumphant had neglected most of Middle-earth during the war; and by it he had in fact been  weakened: in power and prestige (he had lost and failed to recover one of the Silmarils), and above  all in mind. He had become absorbed in 'kingship', and though a tyrant of ogre-size and monstrous  power, this was a vast fall even from his former wickedness of hate, and his terrible nihilism. He  had fallen to like being a tyrant-king with conquered slaves, and vast obedient armies. (5)  The war was successful, and ruin was limited to the small (if beautiful) region of Beleriand.  Morgoth was thus actually made captive in physical form, (6) and in that form taken as a mere  criminal to Aman and delivered to Namo Mandos as judge - and executioner. He was judged, and  eventually taken out of the Blessed Realm and executed: that is killed like one of the Incarnates.  It was then made plain (though it must have been understood beforehand by Manwe and Namo) that,  though he had 'disseminated' his power (his evil and possessive and rebellious will) far and wide  into the matter of Arda, he had lost direct control of this, and all that 'he', as a surviving  remnant of integral being, retained as 'himself and under control was the terribly shrunken and  reduced spirit that inhabited his self-imposed (but now beloved) body. When that body was destroyed  he was weak and utterly 'houseless', and for that time at a loss and 'unanchored' as it were. We  read that he was then thrust out into the Void. (7) That should mean that he was put outside Time  and Space, outside Ea altogether; but if that were so this would imply a direct intervention of Eru  (with or without supplication of the Valar). It may however refer inaccurately* to the extrusion or  flight of his spirit from Arda.  In any case, in seeking to absorb or rather to infiltrate himself throughout 'matter', what was  then left of him was no longer powerful enough to reclothe itself. (It would now remain fixed in  the desire to do so: there was no 'repentance' or possibility of it: Melkor had abandoned for ever  all 'spiritual' ambitions, and existed almost solely as a desire to possess and dominate matter,  and Arda in particular.) At least it could not yet reclothe itself. We need not suppose that Manwe  was deluded into supposing that this had been a war to end war, or even to end Melkor. Melkor was  not Sauron. We speak of him being 'weakened, shrunken, reduced'; but this is in comparison with the great Valar. He had been a being of immense potency and life. The Elves certainly held and taught  that fear or 'spirits' may grow of their own life (independently of the body), even as they may be  hurt and healed, be diminished and renewed. (8) The dark spirit of Melkor's 'remainder' might be  expected, therefore, eventually and after long ages to increase again, even (as some held) to draw  back into itself some of its formerly dissipated power. It would do this (even if Sauron could not)  because of its relative greatness. It did not repent, or turn finally away from its obsession, but  retained still relics of wisdom, so that it could still seek its object indirectly, and not merely  blindly. It would rest, seek to heal itself, distract itself by other thoughts and desires and  devices - but all simply to recover enough strength to return to the attack on the Valar, and to  its old obsession. As it grew again it would become, as it were, a dark shadow, breeding on the  confines of Arda, and yearning towards it.
 Nonetheless the breaking of Thangorodrim and the extrusion of Melkor was the end of 'Morgoth' as  such, and for that age (and many ages after). It was thus, also, in a sense the end of Manwe's  prime function and task as Elder King, until the End. He had been the Adversary of the Enemy.
 It is very reasonable to suppose that Manwe knew that before long (as he saw 'time') the Dominion  of Men must begin, and the making of history would then be committed to them: for their struggle  with Evil special arrangements had been made! Manwe knew of Sauron, of course. He had commanded  Sauron to come before him for judgement, but had left room for repentance and ultimate  rehabilitation. Sauron had refused and had fled into hiding. Sauron, however, was a problem that  Men had to deal with finally: the first of the many concentrations of Evil into definite  power-points that they would have to combat, as it was also the last of those in 'mythological'  personalized (but non-human) form.
 It may be noted that Sauron's first defeat was achieved by the Numenoreans alone (though Sauron  was not in fact overthrown personally: his 'captivity' was voluntary and a trick). In the first  overthrow and disembodiment of Sauron in Middle-earth (neglecting the matter of Luthien) (9)
 Here the long version B breaks off, at the foot of a page. I give now the conclusion of version A  from the point where the texts diverge (see p. 394 and note 6), beginning with the sentence  corresponding to B (p. 401) 'The last major effort, of this demiurgic kind, made by the Valar...'  The last effort of this sort made by the Valar was the raising up of the Pelori - but this was not  a good act: it came near to countering Morgoth in his own way - apart from the element of  selfishness in its object of preserving Aman as a blissful region to live in.  The Valar were like architects working with a plan 'passed' by the Government. They became less  and less important (structurally!) as the plan was more and more nearly achieved. Even in the First  Age we see them after uncounted ages of work near the end of their time of work - not wisdom or  counsel. (The wiser they became the less power they had to do anything - save by counsel.)
 Similarly the Elves faded, having introduced 'art and science'. (10) Men will also 'fade', if it  proves to be the plan that things shall still go on, when they have completed their function. But  even the Elves had the notion that this would not be so: that the end of Men would somehow be bound  up with the end of history, or as they called it 'Arda Marred' (Arda Sahta), and the achievement of  'Arda Healed' (Arda Envinyanta). (11) (They do not seem to have been clear or precise - how should  they be! - whether Arda Envinyanta was a permanent state of achievement, which could therefore only  be enjoyed 'outside Time', as it were: surveying the Tale as an englobed whole; or a state of  unmarred bliss within Time and in a 'place' that was in some sense a lineal and historical descent  of our world or 'Arda Marred'. They seem often to have meant both. 'Arda Unmarred' did not actually  exist, but remained in thought - Arda without Melkor, or rather without the effects of his becoming  evil; but is the source from which all ideas of order and perfection are derived. 'Arda Healed' is  thus both the completion of the 'Tale of Arda' which has taken up all the deeds of Melkor, but must  according to the promise of Iluvatar be seen to be good; and also a state of redress and bliss  beyond the 'circles of the world'.) (12)  Evil is fissiparous. But itself barren. Melkor could not 'beget', or have any spouse (though he  attempted to ravish Arien, this was to destroy and 'distain' (13) her, not to beget fiery  offspring). Out of the discords of the Music - sc. not directly out of either of the themes, (14)  Eru's or Melkor's, but of their dissonance with regard one to another - evil things appeared in  Arda, which did not descend from any direct plan or vision of Melkor: they were not 'his children';  and therefore, since all evil hates, hated him too. The progeniture of things was corrupted. Hence  Orcs? Part of the Elf-Man idea gone wrong. Though as for Orcs, the Eldar believed Morgoth had  actually 'bred' them by capturing Men , (and Elves) early and increasing to the utmost any corrupt  tendencies they possessed.  Despite its incomplete state (whether due to the loss of the conclusion of the fully developed  form of the essay or to its abandonment, see note 6) this is the most comprehensive account that my  father wrote of how, in his later years, he had come to 'interpret' the nature of Evil in his  mythology; never elsewhere did he write any such exposition of the nature of Morgoth, of his  decline, and of his corruption of Arda, nor draw out the distinction between Morgoth and Sauron:  'the whole of Middle-earth was Morgoth's Ring'.
To place this essay in sequential relation to the other 'philosophical' or 'theological' writings given in this book with any certainty seems scarcely possible, though 'Fionwe son of Manwe' on p. 399 (for 'Eonwe herald of Manwe') may suggest that it stands relatively early among them (see pp. 151-2). It shows a marked likeness in tone to the many letters of exposition that my father wrote in the later 1950s, and indeed it seems to me very possible that the correspondence which followed the publication of The Lord of the Rings played a significant part in the development of his examination of the 'images and events' of the mythology. (15).    
*[footnote to the text] Since the minds of Men (and even of the Elves) were inclined to confuse  the 'Void', as a conception of the state of Not-being, outside Creation or Ea, with the conception  of vast spaces within Ea, especially those conceived to lie all about the enisled 'Kingdom of Arda'  (which we should probably call the Solar System).    
Note 1. Overt condemnation, strongly expressed, of the Valar for the Hiding of Valinor is found in  the story of that name in The Book of Lost Tales (I.208-9), but disappears in the later versions.  Of the old story I noted (I.223) that 'in The Silmarillion there is no vestige of the tumultuous  council, no suggestion of a disagreement among the Valar, with Manwe, Varda and Ulmo actively disapproving the work and holding aloof from it', and I commented: It is most curious to observe that the action of the Valar here sprang essentially from indolence mixed with fear. Nowhere does my father's early conception of the fainéant Gods appear more  clearly. He held moreover quite explicitly that their failure to make war upon Melko then and there  was a deep error, diminishing themselves, and (as it appears) irreparable. In his later writing the  Hiding of Valinor remained indeed, but only as a great fact of mythological antiquity; there is no  whisper of its condemnation.
The last words refer to the actual Silmarillion narratives. Ulmo's disapproval now reappears, and  is a further evidence of his isolation in the counsels of the Valar (see p. 253 note II); cf. his words to Tuor at Vinyamar (having spoken to him, among other things, of 'the hiding of the Blessed Realm', though what he said is not told): 'Therefore, though in the days of this darkness I seem to  oppose the will of my brethren, the Lords of the West, that is my part among them, to which I was  appointed ere the making of the World' {Unfinished Tales p. 29).
Note 2. pleasaunce (= pleasance): a 'pleasure-garden'. My father used this word several times in  The Book of Lost Tales (see 1.275, pleasance), for example of the gardens of Lorien.
Note 3. At this point my father wrote on the manuscript later: 'See original short form on Fading  of Elves (and Men)'. See p. 394. This seems a clear indication that B was not completed, or that if  it was its conclusion was early lost.
Note 4. Cf. the statement on this subject in the brief text I, p. 370.
Note 5. Since this discussion is introduced in justification of the Hiding of Valinor, the bearing  of the argument seems to be that the history of Middle-earth in the last centuries of the First Age would not have been possible of achievement had Valinor remained open to the return of the Noldor.
Note 6. As, of course, had happened to Melkor long before, after the sack of Utumno.
Note 7. Cf. the conclusion of QS (V.332, §29): 'But Morgoth himself the Gods thrust through the Door of Night into the Timeless Void, beyond the Walls of the World'.
Note 8. The following was added marginally after the page was written:   If they do not sink below a certain level. Since no fea can be annihilated, reduced to zero or not-existing, it is no clear what is meant. Thus Sauron was said to have fallen below the point of ever recovering, though he had previously recovered. What is probably meant is that a 'wicked' spirit becomes fixed in a certain desire or ambition, and if it cannot repent then this desire becomes virtually its whole being. But the desire may be wholly beyond the weakness it has fallen to, and it will then be unable to withdraw its attention from the unobtainable desire, even to  attend to itself. It will then remain for ever in impotent desire or memory of desire.
Note 9. A reference to the legend of the defeat of Sauron by Luthien and Huan on the isle of  Tol-in-Gaurhoth, where Beren was imprisoned {The Silmarillion pp. 174-5).
Note 10. Cf. Letters no.181 (1956): 'In this mythological world the Elves and Men are in their incarnate forms kindred, but in the relation of their "spirits" to the world in time represent different "experiments", each of which has its own natural trend, and weakness. The Elves represent, as it were, the artistic, aesthetic, and purely scientific aspects of the Humane nature  raised to a higher level than is actually seen in Men.'
Note 11. In the text FM 2 of 'Finwe and Miriel' (p. 254, footnote) 'Arda Marred' is Arda Hastaina. Arda Envinyanta, at both occurrences, was first written Arda Vincarna.
Note 12. With this passage in brackets cf. especially note (iii) at the end of Laws and Customs (p. 251); also pp. 245,254 (footnote), 318
Note 13. distain', an archaic verb meaning 'stain', 'discolour', 'defile'.  
Note 14. The Three Themes of Iluvatar in the Music of the Ainur are here treated as a single theme, in opposition to the discordant 'theme' of Melkor.
Note 15. In a letter of June 1957 (Letters no.200) he wrote: I am sorry if this all seems dreary and 'pompose'. But so do all attempts to 'explain' the images and events of a mythology. Naturally the stories come first. But it is, I suppose, some test of the consistency of a mythology as such, if it is capable of some sort of rational or rationalized explanation.

 MR (HME 10)/5:8. Myths Transformed. Orcs. /Autocomm./
 In the last sentence of the original short version of text VII (p. 406) my father wrote that the Eldar believed that Morgoth bred the Orcs 'by capturing Men (and Elves) early' (i.e. in the early days of their existence). This indicates that his views on this subject had changed since the  Annals of Aman. For the theory of the origin of the Orcs as it stood, in point of written record in the narratives, (1) at this time see AAm §42-5 (pp. 72-4, and commentary p. 78 /Fr.161/), and §127 (pp. 109-10 /Fr.162a/, and commentary pp. 123-4 /Fr.162 b/). In the final form in AAm (p. 74 /Fr.161/) 'this is held true by the wise of Eressëa': all those of the Quendi that came into the hands of Melkor, ere Utumno was broken, were put there in prison, and by slow arts of cruelty and wickedness were corrupted and enslaved. Thus did Melkor breed the hideous race of the Orkor in envy and mockery of the Eldar, of whom they were afterwards the bitterest foes. For the Orkor had life and multiplied after the manner of the Children of Iluvatar; and naught that had life of its own, nor the semblance thereof, could ever Melkor make since his rebellion in the Ainulindale before the Beginning: so say the wise. On the typescript of AAm my father noted against the account of the origin of the Orcs: 'Alter this. Orcs are not Elvish' (p. 80) /Fr.161/. The present text, entitled 'Orcs', is a short essay (very much a record of 'thinking with the pen') found in the same small collection gathered in a newspaper of 1959 as texts III and VI. Like  them it was written on Merton College papers of 1955; and like text VI it makes reference to 'Finrod and Andreth' (see pp. 385, 390).
Their nature and origin require more thought. They are not easy to work into the theory and system.
(1) As the case of Aule and the Dwarves shows, only Eru could make creatures with independent wills, and with reasoning powers. But Orcs seem to have both: they can try to cheat Morgoth / Sauron, rebel against him, or criticize him.
(2) ? Therefore they must be corruptions of something pre-existing.
(3) But Men had not yet appeared, when the Orcs already existed. Aulë constructed the Dwarves out of his memory of the Music; but Eru would not sanction the work of Melkor so as to allow the  independence of the Orcs. (Not unless Orcs were ultimately remediable, or could be amended and 'saved'?) It also seems clear (see 'Finrod and Andreth') that though Melkor could utterly corrupt and ruin  individuals, it is not possible to contemplate his absolute perversion of a whole people, or group of peoples, and his making that state heritable. (2) [Added later: This latter must (if a fact) be  an act of Eru.]
In that case Elves, as a source, are very unlikely. And are Orcs 'immortal', in the Elvish sense? Or trolls? It seems clearly implied in The Lord of the Rings that trolls existed in their own  right, but were 'tinkered' with by Melkor. (3)
 (4) What of talking beasts and birds with reasoning and speech? These have been rather lightly adopted from less 'serious' mythologies, but play a part which cannot now be excised. They are certainly 'exceptions' and not much used, but sufficiently to show they are a recognized feature of  the world. All other creatures accept them as natural if not common.
But true 'rational' creatures, 'speaking peoples', are all of human / 'humanoid' form. Only the Valar and Maiar are intelligences that can assume forms of Arda at will. Huan and Sorontar could be  Maiar - emissaries of Manwe. (4) But unfortunately in The Lord of the Rings Gwaehir and Landroval are said to be descendants of Sorontar. (5) In any case is it likely or possible that even the least of the Maiar would become Orcs? Yes: both outside Arda and in it, before the fall of Utumno. Melkor had corrupted many spirits - some great, as Sauron, or less so, as Balrogs. The least could have been primitive (and much more powerful and perilous) Orcs; but by practising when embodied procreation they would (cf. Melian) more and more  earthbound, unable to return to spirit-state (even demon-form), until released by death (killing), and they would dwindle in force. When released they would, of course, like Sauron, be 'damned':  i.e. reduced to impotence, infinitely recessive: still hating but unable more and more to make it  effective physically (or would not a very dwindled dead Orc-state be a poltergeist?). But again - would Eru provide fear for such creatures? For the Eagles etc. perhaps. But not for Orcs. (6) It does however seem best to view Melkor's corrupting power as always starting, at least, in the  moral or theological level. Any creature that took him for Lord (and especially those who  blasphemously called him Father or Creator) became soon corrupted in all parts of its being, the  fea dragging down the hroa in its descent into Morgothism: hate and destruction. As for Elves being  'immortal': they in fact only had enormously long lives, and were themselves physically 'wearing  out', and suffering a slow progressive weakening of their bodies.
In summary: I think it must be assumed that 'talking' is not necessarily the sign of the possession of a 'rational soul' or fea. (7) The Orcs were beasts of humanized shape (to mock Men  and Elves) deliberately perverted / converted into a more close resemblance to Men. Their 'talking'  was really reeling off 'records' set in them by Melkor. Even their rebellious critical words - he  knew about them. Melkor taught them speech and as they bred they inherited this; and they had just  as much independence as have, say, dogs or horses of their human masters. This talking was largely  echoic (cf. parrots), in The Lord of the Rings Sauron is said to have devised a language for them.  (8)  The same sort of thing may be said of Huan and the Eagles: they were taught language by the Valar,  and raised to a higher level - but they still had no fear.  But Finrod probably went too far in his assertion that Melkor could not wholly corrupt any work of  Eru, or that Eru would (necessarily) interfere to abrogate the corruption, or to end the being of  His own creatures because they had been corrupted and fallen into evil. (9)  It remains therefore terribly possible there was an Elvish strain in the Orcs. (10) These may then  even have been mated with beasts (sterile!) - and later Men. Their life-span would be diminished.  And dying they would go to Mandos and be held in prison till the End.  The text as written ends here, but my father subsequently added the following passage. The words  with which it opens are a reference to text VI, Melkor Morgoth (p. 390).  See 'Melkor'. It will there be seen that the wills of Orcs and Balrogs etc. are part of Melkor's  power 'dispersed'. Their spirit is one of hate. But hate is non-cooperative (except under direct  fear). Hence the rebellions, mutinies, etc. when Morgoth seems far off. Orcs are beasts and Balrogs  corrupted Maiar. Also (n.b.) Morgoth not Sauron is the source of Orc-wills. Sauron is just another  (if greater) agent. Orcs can rebel against him without losing their own irremediable allegiance to  evil (Morgoth). Aule wanted love. But of course had no thought of dispersing his power. Only Eru  can give love and independence. If a finite sub-creator tries to do this he really wants absolute  loving obedience, but it turns into robotic servitude and becomes evil.    
Note 1. In a long letter to Peter Hastings of September 1954, which was not sent (Letters no.l53),  my father wrote as follows on the question of whether Orcs 'could have "souls" or "spirits"':    ... since in my myth at any rate I do not conceive of the making of souls or spirits, things of an  equal order if not an equal power to the Valar, as a possible 'delegation', I have represented at  least the Orcs as pre-existing real beings on whom the Dark Lord has exerted the fullness of his  power in remodelling and corrupting them, not making them. ... There might be other 'makings' all  the same which were more like puppets filled (only at a distance) with their maker's mind and will,  or ant-like operating under direction of a queen-centre.    Earlier in this letter he had quoted Frodo's words to Sam in the chapter 'The Tower of Cirith  Ungol': 'The Shadow that bred them can only mock, it cannot make: not real new things of its own. I  don't think it gave life to the Orcs, it only ruined them and twisted them'; and he went on: 'In  the legends of the Elder Days it is suggested that the Diabolus subjugated and corrupted some of  the earliest Elves ...' He also said that the Orcs 'are fundamentally a race of "rational incarnate" creatures'.
Note 2. in the Athrabeth (p. 312) Finrod declared: But never even in the night have we believed that  could prevail against the Children of Eru. This  one he might cozen, or that one he might corrupt; but to change the doom of a whole people of the  Children, to rob them of their inherit-ance: if he could do that in Eru's despite, then greater and  more terrible is he by far than we guessed ..
 Note 3. In The Lord of the Rings Appendix F (1) it is said of Trolls:    In their beginning far back in the twilight of the Elder Days, these were creatures of dull and  lumpish nature and had no more language than beasts. But Sauron had made use of them, teaching them  what little they could learn, and increasing their wits with wickedness.  In the long letter of September 1954 cited in note I he wrote of them:  I am not sure about Trolls. I think they are mere 'counterfeits', and hence (though here I am of  course only using elements of old barbarous mythmaking that had no 'aware' metaphysic) they return  to mere stone images when not in the dark. But there are other sorts of Trolls beside these rather  ridiculous, if brutal. Stone-trolls, for which other origins are suggested. Of course ... when you  make Trolls speak you are giving them a power, which in our world (probably) connotes the  possession of a 'soul'.
 Note 4. See p. 138.-At the bottom of the page bearing the brief text V (p. 389) my father jotted  down the following, entirely unconnected with the matter of the text:  Living things in Aman. As the Valar would robe themselves like the Children, many of the Maiar  robed themselves like other lesser living things, as trees, flowers, beasts. (Huan.)
 Note 5. 'There came Gwaihir the Windlord, and Landroval his brother, greatest of all the Eagles of the North, mightiest of the descendants of old Thorondor' ('The Field of Cormallen' in The Return of the King).
 Note 6. At this point there is a note that begins 'Criticism of (1) (2) (3) above' (i.e. the  opening points of this text, p. 409) and then refers obscurely to the last battle and fall of Barad-dur etc.' in The Lord of the Rings. In view of what follows my father was presumably thinking  of this passage in the chapter 'Mount Doom':  From all his policies and webs of fear and treachery, from all his stratagems and wars his mind shook free; and throughout his realm a tremor ran, his slaves quailed, and his armies halted, and  his captains suddenly steerless, bereft of will, wavered and despaired. For they were forgotten.  
 The note continues: They had little or no will when not actually 'attended to' by the mind of Sauron. Does their cheating and rebellion pass that possible to such animals as dogs etc.?
 Note 7. Cf. the end of the passage cited from the letter of 1954 m note 3.
 Note 8. Appendix F (I): 'It is said that the Black Speech was devised by Sauron in the Dark Years'.
 Note 9. See the citation from the Athrabeth in note 2. Finrod did not in fact assert the latter part of the opinion here attributed to him.
 Note 10. The assertion that 'it remains therefore terribly possible there was an Elvish strain in the Orcs' seems merely to contradict what has been said about their being no more than 'talking  beasts' without advancing any new considerations. In the passage added at the end of the text the  statement that 'Orcs are beasts' is repeated.

 MR (HME 10)/5:9. Myths Transformed. /Orcs-II/. /Autocomm./  
 This is another and quite separate note on the origin of the Orcs, written quickly in pencil, and  without any indication of date.  This suggests - though it is not explicit - that the 'Orcs' were of Elvish origin. Their origin is  more clearly dealt with elsewhere. One point only is certain: Melkor could not 'create' living  'creatures' of independent wills.  He (and all the 'spirits' of the 'First-created', according to their measure) could assume bodily  shapes; and he (and they) could dominate the minds of other creatures, including Elves and Men, by  force, fear, or deceits, or sheer magnificence.  The Elves from their earliest times invented and used a word or words with a base (o)rok to denote  anything that caused fear and/or horror. It would originally have been applied to 'phantoms'  (spirits assuming visible forms) as well as to any independ-ently existing creatures. Its  application (in all Elvish tongues) specifically to the creatures called Orks - so I shall spell it  in The Silmarillion - was later.  Since Melkor could not 'create' an independent species, but had immense powers of corruption and  distortion of those that came into his power, it is probable that these Orks had a mixed origin.  Most of them plainly (and biologically) were corruptions of Elves (and probably later also of Men).  But always among them (as special servants and spies of Melkor, and as leaders) there must have  been numerous corrupted minor spirits who assumed similar bodily shapes. (These would exhibit  terrifying and demonic characters.)  The Elves would have classed the creatures called 'trolls' (in The Hobbit and The Lord of the  Rings) as Orcs - in character and origin - but they were larger and slower. It would seem evident  that they were corruptions of primitive human types.  At the bottom of the page my father wrote: 'See The Lord of the Rings Appendix p. 410'; this is  the passage in Appendix F concerning Trolls.  It seems possible that his opening words in this note 'This suggests -though it is not explicit -  that the "Orcs" were of Elvish origin' actually refer to the previous text given here, VIII, where  he first wrote that 'Elves, as a source, are very unlikely', but later concluded that 'it remains  therefore terribly possible there was an Elvish strain in the Orcs'. But if this is so, the  following words 'Their origin is more clearly dealt with elsewhere' must refer to something else.  He now expressly asserts the earlier view (see p. 408 and note 1 / Fr.168/) that the Orcs were in  origin corrupted Elves, but observes that later' some were probably derived from Men. In saying  this (as the last paragraph and the reference to The Lord of the Rings Appendix F suggest) he seems  to have been thinking of Trolls, and specifically of the Olog-hai, the great Trolls who appeared at  the end of the Third Age (as stated in Appendix F): "That Sauron bred them none doubted, though  from what stock was not known. Some held that they were not Trolls but giant Orcs; but the Olog-hai  were in fashion of body and mind quite unlike even the largest of Orc-kind, whom they far  sur-passed in size and power.'  The conception that among the Orcs 'there must have been numerous corrupted minor spirits who  assumed similar bodily shapes' appears also in text VIII (p. 410): 'Melkor had corrupted many  spirits - some great, as Sauron, or less so, as Balrogs. The least could have been primitive (and  much more powerful and perilous) Orcs' /Fr.168/.

 MR (HME 10)/5:10. Myths Transformed. /Orcs-III/. /Autocomm./
 I give here a text of an altogether different kind, a very finished essay on the origin of the  Orcs'. It is necessary to explain something of the relations of this text.  There is a major work, which I hope to publish in The History of Middle-earth, entitled Essekenta  Eldarinwa or Quendi and Eldar, It is extant in a good typescript made by my father on his later  typewriter, both in top copy and carbon; and it is preceded in both copies by a manuscript page  which describes tie content of the work:  Enquiry into the origins of the Elvish names for Elves and their varieties clans and divisions:  with Appendices on their names for the other Incarnates: Men, Dwarves, and Orcs; and on their  analysis of their own language, Quenya: with a note on tile 'Language of the Valar'.  With the appendices Quendi and Eldar runs to nearly fifty closely typed pages, and being a highly  finished and lucid work is of the utmost interest.  To one of the title pages my father subjoined the following:    To which is added an abbreviation of the Osanwe-kenta or 'Communication of Thought that Pengolodh  set at the end of his Lammas or 'Account of Tongues'  This is a separate work of eight typescript pages, separately paginated, but found together with  both copies of Quendi and Eldar. In addition, and not referred to on the title-pages, there is a  further typescript of four pages (also found with both copies of Quendi and Eldar) entitled Orcs,  and this is the text given here.  All three elements are identical in general appearance, but Orcs stands apart from the others,  having no linguistic bearing; and in view of this I have thought it legitimate to abstract it and  print it in this book together with the other discussions of the origin of the Orcs given as texts  VIII / Fr.168/ and IX / Fr.169/.  As to the date of this complex, one of the copies is preserved in a folded newspaper of March  1960. On this my father wrote: '"Quendi and Eldar" with Appendices'; beneath is a brief list of the  Appendices, the items all written at the same time, which includes both Osanwe and Origin of Orcs  (the same is true of the cover of the other copy of the Quendi and Eldar complex). All the material  was thus in being when the newspaper was used for this purpose, and although, as in other similar  cases, this does not provide a perfectly certain terminus ad quern, there seems no reason to doubt  that it belongs to 1959-60 (cf. p. 304).
 Appendix C to Quendi and Eldar, 'Elvish Names for the Orcs' / Fr.192/, is primarily concerned with  etymology, but it opens with the following passage:  It is not here the place to debate the question of the origin of the Orcs. They were bred by  Melkor, and their breeding was the most wicked and lamentable of his works in Arda, but not the  most terrible. For clearly they were meant in his malice to be a mockery of the Children of  Iluvatar, wholly subservient to his will, and nursed in an unappeasable hatred of Elves and Men.  The Orcs of the later wars, after the escape of Melkor-Morgoth and his return to Middle-earth,  were neither spirits nor phantoms, but living creatures, capable of speech and of some crafts and  organization, or at least capable of learning such things from higher creatures or from their  Master. They bred and multiplied rapidly whenever left undisturbed. It is unlikely, as a  consideration of the ultimate origin of this race would make clearer, that the Quendi had met any  Orcs of this kind, before their finding by Oromë and the separation of Eldar and Avari.  But it is known that Melkor had become aware of the Quendi before the Valar began their war  against him, and the joy of the Elves in Middle-earth had already been darkened by shadows of fear.  Dreadful shapes had begun to haunt the borders of their dwellings, and some of their people  vanished into the darkness and were heard of no more. Some of these things may have been phantoms  and delusions; but some were, no doubt, shapes taken by the servants of Melkor, mocking and  degrading the very forms of the Children. For Melkor had in his service great numbers of the Maiar,  who had the power, as had their Master, of taking visible and tangible shape in Arda.  No doubt my father was led from his words here 'It is unlikely, as a consideration of the ultimate  origin of this race would make clearer, that the Quendi had met any Orcs of this kind, before their  finding by Oromë' to write that 'consideration' which follows here. It will be seen that one  passage of this initial statement was re-used.
 Orcs /OrcsIIIA/
 The origin of the Orcs is a matter of debate. Some have called them the Melkorohíni, the Children  of Melkor; but the wiser say: nay, the slaves of Melkor, but not his children; for Melkor had no  children. (1) Nonetheless, it was by the malice of Melkor that the Orcs arose, and plainly they  were meant by him to be a mockery of the Children of Eru, being bred to be wholly subservient to  his will and filled with unappeasable hatred of Elves and Men.  Now the Orcs of the later wars, after the escape of Melkor-Morgoth and his return to Middle-earth,  were not 'spirits', nor phantoms, but living creatures, capable of speech and some crafts and  organization; or at least capable of learning these things from higher creatures and from their  Master. They bred and multiplied rapidly, whenever left undisturbed. So far as can be gleaned from  the legends that have come down to us from our earliest days, (2) it would seem that the Quendi had  never yet encountered any Orcs of this kind before the coming of Oromë to Cuiviénen.  Those who believe that the Orcs were bred from some kind of Men, captured and perverted by Melkor,  assert that it was impossible for the Quendi to have known of Orcs before the Separation and the  departure of the Eldar. For though the time of the awakening of Men is not known, even the  calculations of the loremasters that place it earliest do not assign it a date long before the  Great March began, (3) certainly not long enough before it to allow for the corruption of Men into  Orcs. On the other hand, it is plain that soon after his return Morgoth had at his command a great  number of these creatures, with whom he ere long began to attack the Elves. There was still less  time between his return and these first assaults for the breeding of Orcs and for the transfer of  their hosts westward.  This view of the origin of the Orcs thus meets with difficulties of chronology. But though Men may  take comfort in this, the theory remains nonetheless the most probable. It accords with all that is  known of Melkor, and of the nature and behaviour of Orcs - and of Men. Melkor was impotent to  produce any living thing, but skilled in the corruption of things that did not proceed from  himself, if he could dominate them. But if he had indeed attempted to make creatures of his own in  imitation or mockery of the Incarnates, he would, like Aule, only have succeeded in producing  puppets: his creatures would have acted only while the attention of his will was upon them, and  they would have shown no reluctance to execute any command of his, even if it were to destroy  themselves.  But the Orcs were not of this kind. They were certainly dominated by their Master, but his  dominion was by fear, and they were aware of this fear and hated him. They were indeed so corrupted  that they were pitiless, and there was no cruelty or wickedness that they would not commit; but  this was the corruption of independent wills, and they took pleasure in their deeds. They were  capable of acting on their own, doing evil deeds unbidden for their own sport; or if Morgoth and  his agents were far away, they might neglect his commands. They sometimes fought [> They hated one another and often fought] among themselves, to the detriment of Morgoth's plans.  Moreover, the Orcs continued to live and breed and to carry on their business of ravaging and  plundering after Morgoth was overthrown. They had other characteristics of the Incarnates also.  They had languages of their own, and spoke among themselves in various tongues according to  differences of breed that were discernible among them. They needed food and drink, and rest, though  many were by training as tough as Dwarves in enduring hardship. They could be slain, and they were  subject to disease; but apart from these ills they died and were not immortal, even according to  the manner of the Quendi; indeed they appear to have been by nature short-lived compared with the  span of Men of higher race, such as the Edain.  This last point was not well understood in the Elder Days. For Morgoth had many servants, the  oldest and most potent of whom were immortal, belonging indeed in their beginning to the Maiar; and  these evil spirits like their Master could take on visible forms. Those whose business it was to  direct the Orcs often took Orkish shapes, though they were greater and more terrible. (4) Thus it  was that the histories speak of Great Orcs or Orc-captains who were not slain, and who reappeared  in battle through years far longer than the span of the lives of Men.*
[*footnote to the text: Boldog, for instance, is a name that occurs many times in the tales of the War. But it is possible  that Boldog was not a personal name, and either a title, or else the name of a kind of creature:  the Orc-formed Maiar, only less formidable than the Balrogs]. (5)  Finally, there is a cogent point, though horrible to relate. It became clear in time that undoubted Men could under the domination of Morgoth or his agents in a few generations be reduced almost to the Orc-level of mind and habits; and then they would or could be made to mate with Orcs, producing new breeds, often larger and more cunning. There is no doubt that long afterwards, in the Third Age, Saruman rediscovered this, or learned of it in lore, and in his lust for mastery committed this, his wickedest deed: the interbreeding of Orcs and Men, producing both Men-orcs  large and cunning, and Orc-men treacherous and vile. But even before this wickedness of Morgoth was suspected the Wise in the Elder Days taught always that the Orcs were not 'made' by Melkor, and therefore were not in their origin evil. They might have become irredeemable (at least by Elves and Men), but they remained within the Law. That is,  that though of necessity, being the fingers of the hand of Morgoth, they must be fought with the  utmost severity, they must not be dealt with in their own terms of cruelty and treachery. Captives  must not be tormented, not even to discover information for the defence of the homes of Elves and  Men. If any Orcs surrendered and asked for mercy, they must be granted it, even at a cost.**
[**footnote to the text: Few Orcs ever did so in the Elder Days, and at no time would any Orc treat  with any Elf. For one thing Morgoth had achieved was to convince the Orcs beyond refutation that  the Elves were crueller than themselves, taking captives only for 'amusement', or to eat them (as  the Orcs would do at need)]. This was the teaching of the Wise, though in the horror of the War it  was not always heeded.  It is true, of course, that Morgoth held the Orcs in dire thraldom; for in their corruption they  had lost almost all possibility of resisting the domination of his will. So great indeed did its  pressure upon them become ere Angband fell that, if he turned his thought towards them, they were  conscious of his 'eye' wherever they might be; and when Morgoth was at last removed from Arda the  Orcs that survived in the West were scattered, leaderless and almost witless, and were for a long  time without control or purpose.  This servitude to a central will that reduced the Orcs almost to an ant-like life was seen even  more plainly in the Second and Third Ages under the tyranny of Sauron, Morgoth's chief lieutenant.  Sauron indeed achieved even greater control over his Orcs than Morgoth had done. He was, of course,  operating on a smaller scale, and he had no enemies so great and so fell as were the Noldor in  their might in the Elder Days. But he had also inherited from those days difficulties, such as the  diversity of the Orcs in breed and language, and the feuds among them; while in many places in  Middle-earth, after the fall of Thangorodrim and during the concealment of Sauron, the Orcs  recovering from their helplessness had set up petty realms of their own and had become accustomed  to independence. Nonetheless Sauron in time managed to unite them all in unreasoning hatred of the  Elves and of Men who associated with them; while the Orcs of his own trained armies were so  completely under his will that they would sacrifice themselves without hesitation at his  com-mand.*** [***footnote to the text: But there remained one flaw in his control, inevitable. In  the kingdom of hate and fear, the strongest thing is hate. All his Orcs hated one another, and must  be kept ever at war with some 'enemy' to prevent them from slaying one another]. And he proved even  more skilful than his Master also in the corruption of Men who were beyond the reach of the Wise,  and in reducing them to a vassalage, in which they would march with the Orcs, and vie with them in  cruelty and destruction.  If is thus probably to Sauron that we may look for a solution of the problem of chronology. Though  of immensely smaller native power than his Master, he remained less corrupt, cooler and more  capable of calculation. At least in the Elder Days, and before he was bereft of his lord and fell  into the folly of imitating him, and endeavouring to become himself supreme Lord of Middle-earth.  While Morgoth still stood, Sauron did not seek his own supremacy, but worked and schemed for  another, desiring the triumph of Melkor, whom in the begin-ning he had adored. He thus was often  able to achieve things, first conceived by Melkor, which his master did not or could not complete  in the furious haste of his malice.  We may assume, then, that the idea of breeding the Orcs came from Melkor, not at first maybe so  much for the provision of servants or the infantry of his wars of destruction, as for the  defilement of the Children and the blasphemous mockery of the designs of Eru. The details of the  accomplishment of this wickedness were, however, left mainly to the subtleties of Sauron. In that  case the conception in mind of the Orcs may go far back into the night of Melkor's thought, though  the beginning of their actual breeding must await the awakening of Men.  When Melkor was made captive, Sauron escaped and lay hid, in Middle-earth; and it can in this way  be understood how the breeding of the Orcs (no doubt already begun) went on with increasing speed  during the age when the Noldor dwelt in Aman; so that when they returned to Middle-earth they found  it already infested with this plague, to the torment of all that dwelt there, Elves or Men or  Dwarves. It was Sauron, also, who secretly repaired Angband for the help of his Master when he  returned; (6) and there the dark places underground were already manned with hosts of the Orcs  before Melkor came back at last, as Morgoth the Black Enemy, and sent them forth to bring ruin upon  all that was fair. And though Angband has fallen and Morgoth is removed, still they come forth from  the lightless places in the darkness of their hearts, and the earth is withered under their  pitiless feet.  This then, as it may appear, was my father's final view of the question: Orcs were bred from Men,  and if 'the conception in mind of the Orcs may go far back into the night of Melkor's thought' it  was Sauron who, during the ages of Melkor's captivity in Aman, brought into being the black armies  that were available to his Master when he returned.  But, as always, it is not quite so simple. Accompanying one copy of the typescript of this essay  are some pages in manuscript for which my father used the blank reverse sides of papers provided by  the publishers dated 10 November 1969. These pages carry two notes on the 'Orcs' essay: one,  discussing the spelling of the word orc, is given on p. 422 / Fr.170, OrcsIIIB/; the other is a  note arising from something in the essay which is not indicated, but which is obviously the passage  on p. 417 / Fr.170, ORcsIIIA/ discussing the puppet-like nature inevitable in creatures brought  into being by one of the great Powers themselves: the note was intended to stand in relation to the  words 'But the Orcs were not of this kind'.  The orks, it is true, sometimes appear to have been reduced to a condition very similar, though  there remains actually a profound difference. Those orks who dwell long under the immediate  attention of his will - as garrisons of his strongholds or elements of armies trained for special  purposes in his war-designs - would act like herds, obeying instantly, as if with one will, his  commands even if ordered to sacrifice their lives in his service. And as was seen when Morgoth was  at last overthrown and cast out, those orks that had been so absorbed scattered helplessly, without  purpose either to flee or to fight, and soon died or slew themselves.  Other originally independent creatures, and Men among them (but neither Elves nor Dwarves), could  also be reduced to a like condition. But 'puppets', with no independent life or will, would simply  cease to move or do anything at all when the will of their maker was brought to nothing. In any  case the number of orks that were thus 'absorbed' was always only a small part of their total. To  hold them in absolute servitude required a great expense of will. Morgoth though in origin  possessed of vast power was finite; and it was this expenditure upon the orks, and still more upon  the other far more formidable creatures in his service, that in the event so dissipated his powers  of mind that Morgoth's overthrow became possible. Thus the greater part of the orks, though under  his orders and the dark shadow of their fear of him, were only intermittently objects of his  immediate thought and concern, and while that was re-moved they relapsed into independence and  became conscious of their hatred of him and his tyranny. Then they might neglect his orders, or  engage in /their own achievements.../...  Here the text breaks off. But the curious thing is that rough drafting for the second paragraph of  this note (written on the same paper bearing the same date) begins thus:  But Men could (and can still) be reduced to such a condition. 'Puppets' would simply cease to move  or 'live' at all, when not set in motion by the direct will of their maker. In any case, though the  number of orks at the height of Morgoth's power, and still after his return from captivity, seems  to have been very great, those who were 'absorbed' were always a small part of the total.  The words that I have italicised deny an essential conception of the essay.    The other note reads thus:  Orcs /Orcs IIIB/  This spelling was taken from Old English. The word seemed, in itself, very suitable to the  creatures that I had in mind. But the Old English orc in meaning - so far as that is known - is not  suitable. (7) Also the spelling of what, in the later more organized linguistic situation, must  have been a Common Speech form of a word or group of similar words should be ork. If only because  of spelling difficulties in modern English: an adjective orc + ish becomes necessary, and orcish  will not do. (8) In any future publication I shall use ork.  In text IX / Fr.169/ (the brief writing in which my father declared the theory of Elvish origin to  be certain) he spelt the word Orks, and said 'so I shall spell it in The Silmarillion'. In the  present essay, obviously later than text IX, it is spelt Orcs, but now, in 1969 or later, he asserted again that it must be orks.    
Note 1. See text VII, p. 406 / Fr.167, iii, end/. - On one copy of the text my father pencilled against this sentence the names Eruseni, Melkorseni.
Note 2. Legends that have come down to us from our earliest days': this purports then to be an  Elvish writing. Sauron is spoken of subsequently as a being of the past (This servitude to a  central will .. . was seen even more plainly in the Second and Third Ages under the tyranny of  Sauron', p. 419); but in the last sentence of the essay the Orcs are a plague that still afflicts  the world.
Note 3. The time of the Awakening of Men is now placed far back; cf. text II (p. 378): 'The March of the Eldar is through great Rains? Men awake in an isle amid the floods'; 'The coming of Men will therefore be much further back'; 'Men must awake while Melkor is still in - because of their Fall. Therefore in some period during the Great March (see p. 385 note 14). In the chronology of the Annals of Aman and the Grey Annals the Great March began in the Year of the Trees 1105 (p. 82), and the foremost companies of the Eldar came to the shores of the Great Sea in 1125; Men awoke in  Hildorien in the year of the first rising of the Sun, which was the Year of the Trees 1500. Thus if  the Awakening of Men is placed even very late in the period of the Great March of the Eldar it will be set back by more than 3500 Years of the Sun. See further p. 430 note 5.
 Note 4. Cf. text IX, p. 414: 'But always among them  (as special servants and spies of Melkor, and  as leaders) there must have been numerous corrupted minor spirits who assumed similar bodily  shapes' / Fr.169/; also text VIII, p. 410 /Fr.168/.
Note 5. The footnote at this point, staring that 'Boldog, for instance, is a name that occurs many  times in the tales of the War', and was perhaps not a personal name, is curious. Boldog appears several times in the Lay of Leithian as the name of the Orc-captain who led a raid into Doriath  (references in the Index to The Lays of Beleriand); he reappears in the Quenta (IV.113), but is not  mentioned thereafter. I do not know of any other reference to an Orc named Boldog, Note 7. On the later story that Angband was built by Melkor in the ancient days and that it was commanded by Sauron see p. 156, §12. There has been no reference to the repairing of Angband against Morgoth's return, and cf. the last narrative development in the Quenta Silmarillion of the  story of his return (p. 295, §14): Morgoth and Ungoliant 'were drawing near to the ruins of Angband where his great western stronghold had been.'
 Note 7. See p. 124 / Fr.162b/.
 Note 8. 'orcish will not do': because it would be pronounced 'orsish'. The Orkish language was so  spelt in The Lord of the Rings from the First Edition.

WJ (HME11)/1. The Grey Annals (The Annals of the Beleriand). /GA1+GA2/
Valian Year 1050.  
 Hither, it is said, at this time came Melian the Maia from Valinor, when Varda made the great  stars. In this same time the Quendi awoke by Kuivienen, as is told in the Chronicle of Aman.  
 Valian Year 1080  
 About this time the spies of Melkor discovered the Quendi and afflicted them.  
In this year Orome found the Quendi, and befriended them.  
 /Comm./ to §§ 3-5. The second sentence of the annal 1050 and the annals 1080 and 1085 were added  to the manuscript subsequently. It is curious that there was no mention of the Awakening of the  Elves in GA 1 nor in GA 2 as written; but among the rough draft pages referred to on p. 4 there is  in fact a substantial passage beginning: 'In this same time the Quendi awoke by the waters of  Kuivienen: of which more is said in the Chronicles of Aman.' The text that follows in this draft is  very close - much of it indeed virtually identical - to the long passage interpolated into AAm  (§§43-5 / Fr.161/) on the fear of Orome among the Quendi, the ensnaring of them by the servants of Melkor, and the breeding of the Orcs from those captured. There are no differences of substance  between this text and the passage in AAm; and it is obvious that the latter followed, and was based  on, the former, originally intended for inclusion in the Grey Annals.  
In AAm the same dates are given for the Awakening of the Elves (1050) and for their discovery by Orome (1085); no date is given in AAm for their discovery by Melkor, but it is said (AAm §43 /Fr.161/) that this was 'some years ere the coming of Orome'.

 WJ (HME11)/1. The Grey Annals (The Annals of the Beleriand). /GA1+GA2/
 Valian Year 1330. /The Period of Melkor's Chaining, 1090-1495/  
And ere long (in the year 1330 according to the annals that were made in Doriath) the evil  creatures came even to Beleriand, over passes in the mountains, or up from the south through the dark forests. Wolves there were, or creatures that walked in wolf-shapes, and other fell beings of shadow.  
Among these were the Orkor indeed, who after wrought ruin in Beleriand; but they were yet few  and wary and did but smell out the ways of the land, awaiting the return of their Lord. Whence they  came, or what they were, the Elves knew not then, deeming them to be Avari, maybe, that had become  evil and savage in the wild. In which they guessed all too near, it is said.  
 /Comm. to §27/. This paragraph was an addition to GA 1, though not long after the primary text was  made. This is the later conception, introduced into AAm (see X.123, §127 / Fr.162a/), according to  which the Orcs existed before ever Orome came upon the Elves, being indeed bred by Morgoth from  captured Elves; the older tradition, that Morgoth brought the Orcs into being when he returned to Middle-earth from Valinor, survived unchanged in the final form of the Quenta Silmarillion (see  X.194, §62). See further under /Comm. to/ §29 below.  
Therefore Thingol bethought of arms, which before his folk had not needed, and these at first the Naugrim smithied for him./.../ A warlike race of old were all the Naugrim, and they would fight fiercely with whomsoever aggrieved them: folk of Melkor, or Eldar, or Avari, or wild beasts, or not seldom with their own kin, Dwarves of other mansions and lordships.  
 /Comm. to §29/. - Of the appearance of Orcs and other evil beings in Eriador and even in Beleriand long before (some 165 Valian Years) the return of Melkor to Middle-earth, and of the arming of the Sindar by the Dwarves, there has been no previous suggestion (see under §27 above).

 WJ (HME11)/1. The Grey Annals (The Annals of the Beleriand). /GA1+GA2/
/Valian Year 1497/.
Now the Orcs that had multiplied in the bowels of the earth grew strong and fell, and their dark lord filled them with a lust of ruin and death; and they issued from Angband's gates under the clouds that Morgoth sent forth, and passed silently into the highlands of the north. Thence on a sudden a great army came.to Beleriand and assailed King Thingol.  

a. WJ (HME11)/1. The Grey Annals (The Annals of the Beleriand). /GA1+GA2/. But the victory of the  Elves was dearbought. For the Elves of Ossiriand were light-armed, and no match for the Orcs, who  were shod with iron and iron-shielded and bore great spears with broad blades.  
b. WJ (HME11)/1. The Grey Annals (The Annals of the Beleriand). /GA1+GA2/ . /After 155 Year of  Sun/. Thereafter there was peace for many years, and no open assault; for Morgoth perceived now  that the Orcs unaided were no match for the Noldor, save in such numbers as he could not yet muster.
 c. Silmarillion-1977. Quenta Silmarillion /Silmarillion/. 10. Of the Sindar. But the victory of  the Elves was dear-bought. For those of Ossiriand were light-armed, and no match for the Orcs, who  were shod with iron and iron-shielded and bore great spears with broad blades.  
 d. Silmarillion-1977. Quenta Silmarillion /Silmarillion/. 13. Of the Return of the Noldor. But  thereafter there was peace for many years, and no open assault from Angband, for Morgoth perceived  now that the Orcs unaided were no match for the Noldor; and he sought in his heart for new counsel.

WJ (HME11)/1. The Grey Annals (The Annals of the Beleriand). /GA1+GA2/
But the host of Melkor, orcs and werewolves, came through the passes of Eryd-wethrin and assailed Feanor.  

WJ (HME11)/1. The Grey Annals (The Annals of the Beleriand). /GA1+GA2/
Indeed we learn now in Eressea from the Valar, through our /Elvish/ kin that dwell still in  Aman, that after Dagor-nuin-Giliath Melkor was so long in assailing the Eldar with strength for he  himself had departed from Angband, for the last time. Even as before at the awakening of the  Quendi, his spies were watchful, and tidings soon came to him of the arising of Men. This seemed to  him so great a matter that secretly under shadow he went forth into Middle-earth, leaving the  command of the War to Sauron his lieutenant. Of his dealings with Men the Eldar knew naught at that  time, and know little now, for neither the Valar nor Men have spoken to them clearly of these  things. . But that some darkness lay upon the hearts of Men (as the shadow of the kinslaying and  the doom of Mandos lay upon the Noldor) the Eldar perceived clearly even in the fair folk of the  Elf-friends that they first knew. To corrupt or destroy whatsoever arose new and fair was ever the  chief desire of Morgoth; but as regards the Eldar, doubtless he had this purpose also in his  errand: by fear and lies to make Men their foes, and bring them up out of the East against  Beleriand. But this design was slow to ripen, and was never wholly achieved, for Men (it is said)  were at first very few in number, whereas Morgoth grew afraid of the tidings of the growing power  and union of the Eldar and came back to Angband, leaving behind at that time but few servants, and  those of less might and cunning.
From them /Dark Elves of the Eastlands = Avari/ it is said that they took the first beginnings of  the western tongues of Men; and from them also they heard rumour of the Blessed Realms of the West  and of the Powers of Light that dwelt there. Therefore many of the Fathers of Men, the Atanatari, in their wanderings moved ever westward, fleeing from the darkness that had ensnared them. For  these Elf-friends were Men that had repented and rebelled against the Dark Power, and were cruelly  hunted and oppressed by those that worshipped it, and its servants.
/Comm. to §87/. The very interesting addition at the end of the annal belongs with the insertion about Morgoth's departure into the East. There it is said (§80): 'But that some darkness lay upon the hearts of Men ... the Eldar perceived clearly even in the fair folk of the Elf-friends that they first knew'; but the present passage is the first definite statement that Men in their beginning fell to the worship of Morgoth, and that the Elf-friends, repentant, fled west to escape  persecution. In the long account of his works written for Milton Waldman in 1951, and so very probably belonging to the same period, my father had said: 'The first fall of Man ... nowhere appears - Men do not come on the stage until all that is long past, and there is only a rumour that  for a while they fell under the domination of the Enemy and that some repented' (Letters no.131, pp. 147-8; see X.354 - 5).

WJ (HME11)/1. The Grey Annals (The Annals of the Beleriand). /GA1+GA2/
/After the Third Battle, Dagor Aglareb (60 Year of Sun)/. Certain it is that at this time (which was the time of his return, if the aforesaid account be true, as we must believe) Morgoth began a new evil, desiring above all to sow fear and disunion among the Eldar in Beleriand. He now bade the Orkor to take alive any of the Eldar that they could and bring them bound to Angband. For it was his intent to use their lore and skill under duress for his own ends; moreover he took pleasure in tormenting them, and would besides by pain wring from them at times tidings of the deeds and counsels of his enemies. Some indeed he so daunted by the terror of his eyes that they needed no chains more, but walked ever in fear of him, doing his will wherever they might be. These he would unbind and let return to work treason among their own kin. In this way also was the curse of Mandos fulfilled, for after a while the Elves grew afraid of those who claimed to have escaped from thraldom, and often those hapless whom the Orcs ensnared, even if they broke from the toils would but wander homeless and friendless thereafter, becoming outlaws in the woods.

WJ (HME11)/1. The Grey Annals (The Annals of the Beleriand). /GA1+GA2/
/.../ and the orcs and wolves passed far into the lands.

WJ (HME11)/1. The Grey Annals (The Annals of the Beleriand). /GA1+GA2/
And they drove the Orcs and beasts of Angband out /Note that Orcs are strictly differed from  "beasts", be they reasonable or nor, as elsewhere/.

a. WJ (HME11)/1. The Grey Annals (The Annals of the Beleriand). /GA1+GA2/
And even as Turin came up the ghastly sack of Nargothrond was wellnigh achieved. The Orcs had slain or driven off all that remained in arms, and they were even then ransacking all the great halls and chambers, plundering and destroying; but those of the women and maidens that were not burned or slain they had herded on  the terrace before the doors, as slaves to be taken to Angband. /.../ . For the woodmen at the Crossings of Taiglin had waylaid the orc-host that led the captives of Nargothrond, hoping to  rescue them; but the Orcs had at once cruelly slain their prisoners, and Finduilas they pinned to a  tree with a spear.
b. Silmarillion-1977. Quenta Silmarillion /Silmarillion/. 21. Of Turin Turambar.
And even as Turin came up the dreadful sack of Nargothrond was well nigh achieved. The Orcs had  slain or driven off all that remained in arms, and were even then ransacking the great halls and  chambers, plundering and destroying; but those of the women and maidens that were not burned or  slain they had herded on the terraces before the doors, as slaves to be taken into Morgoth's  thraldom. /.../ The Men of Brethil had waylaid at the Crossings of Teiglin the Orc-host that led  the captives of Nargothrond, hoping to rescue them; but the Orcs had at once cruelly slain their  prisoners, and Finduilas they pinned to a tree with a spear. So she died.

a. WJ (HME11)/1. The Grey Annals (The Annals of the Beleriand). /GA1+GA2/ [§ 319].
/498 Year of Sun/.
 But ere the end of the year Glaurung sent Orcs of his dominion against Brethil.

b. Silmarillion-1977. Quenta Silmarillion /Silmarillion/. 21. Of Turin Turambar.
But ere the end of the year Glaurung sent Orcs of his dominion against Brethil.

WJ (HME11)/2:11. The Later Quenta Silmarillion /LQ 1 + LQ 2/. Of Beleriand and its Realms. /Comm./
The great majority of the changes made to the text of QS (Chapter 9, V258-66, $$105-21) are found  in the early typescript LQ 1, but some are not, and appear only in LQ 2: these cases are noticed in  the account that follows. /.../ In QS §115 / Fr.105/ the account ran thus: Of old the lord of Ossiriand was Denethor, friend of Thingol; but he was slain in battle when he marched to the aid of  Thingol against Melko, in the days when the Orcs were first made and broke the starlit peace of Beleriand. Thereafter Doriath was fenced with enchantment' /.../. It is notable that the phrase 'in the days when the Orcs were first made' was never altered.

WJ (HME11)/2:15. The Later Quenta Silmarillion /LQ 1 + LQ 2/. Of the Ruin of Beleriand and the Fall of Fingolfin.
Sauron was the chief servant of the evil Vala, whom he had suborned to his service in Valinor  from among the people of the gods. He was become a wizard of dreadful power, master of necromancy,  foul in wisdom' > 'Now Sauron, whom the Noldor call Gorthu, was the chief servant of Morgoth. In  Valinor he had dwelt among the people of the gods, but there Morgoth had drawn him to evil and to  his service. He was become now a sorcerer of dreadful power, master of shadows and of ghosts, foul  in wisdom'. On this passage, and the name Gorthu, see V.333, 338, and the commentary on QS §143  (V.290). In the footnote to this paragraph Tol-na-Gaurhoth > Tol-in- Gaurhoth (cf. GA $154 and  commentary, pp. 54, 125).

WJ (HME11)/3:1. The Wanderings of Hurin.
Nonetheless the others were doubtful, for no tidings had come out of Brethil for some years. 'It may be ruled by Orcs for all we know,' they said. 'We shall soon find what way things go,' said Asgon. 'Orcs are little worse than Eastrons, I guess. If outlaws we must remain, I would rather lurk in the fair woods than in the cold hills.'

WJ (HME11)/3:1. The Wanderings of Hurin.
'Curs!' he/Hurin/ cried. 'Would you slay an old man sleeping? You look like Men, but you are Orcs under the skin, I guess. Come then! Slay me awake, if you dare.

WJ (HME11)/3:1. The Wanderings of Hurin
 /Elvish capturers of Hurin say on Hurin/: Not by chance, for as he himself declared, he has an  errand here. What that may be he has not revealed, but it cannot be one of good will. He hates this  folk. As soon as he saw us he reviled us. We gave him food and he spat on it. I have seen Orcs do  so, if any were fools enough to show them mercy.

WJ (HME11)/3:3. Maeglin.
For the Eldar never used any poison, not even against their most cruel enemies, beast, ork, or  man; and they were filled with shame and horror that Eol should have meditated this evil deed.

WJ (HME11)/3:4. Quendi and Eldar.
Essekenta Eldarinwa. Enquiry into the origins of the Elvish names for Elves and their varieties  clans and divisions: with Appendices on their names for the other Incarnates: Men, Dwarves, and  Orcs; and on their analysis of their own language, Quenya: with a note on the 'Language of the  Valar'.

WJ (HME11)/3:4. Quendi and Eldar. B.
B. Meanings and use of the various terms applied to the Elves and their varieties in Quenya, Telerin, and Sindarin.
1. quen, pl. queni, person, individual, man or woman. Chiefly used in the unstressed form quen. Mostly found in the singular: 'one, somebody'; in the pl. 'people, they'. Also combined with other  elements, as in aiquen 'if anybody, whoever', ilquen 'everybody'. In a number of old compounds  -quen, pl. queni was combined with noun or adjective stems to denote habitual occupations or  functions, or to describe those having some notable (permanent) quality: as -man in English (but  without distinction of sex) in horseman, seaman, work- man, nobleman, etc. Q roquen 'horseman,  rider'; (Note 3, p. 407) kiryaquen 'shipman, sailor'; arquen 'a noble'. These words belong to  everyday speech, and have no special reference to Elves. They were freely applied to other  Incarnates, such as Men or Dwarves, when the Eldar became acquainted with them.  
2. Quendi Elves, of any kind, including the Avari. The sg. Quende was naturally less frequently  used. As has been seen, the word was made when the Elves as yet knew of no other 'people' than  themselves. The sense 'the Elvish people, as a whole', or in the sg. 'an Elf and not some other  similar creature', developed first in Aman, where the Elves lived among or in contact with the  Valar and Maiar. During the Exile when the Noldor became re-associated with their Elvish kin, the  Sindar, but met other non-Elvish people, such as Orcs, Dwarves, and Men, it became an even more  useful term. But in fact it had ceased in Aman to be a word of everyday use, and remained  thereafter mainly used in the special language of Lore: histories or tales of old days, or learned  writings on peoples and languages. In ordinary language the Elves of Aman called themselves Eldar  (or in Telerin Elloi): see below. There also existed two old compounds containing *kwendi:  *kala-kwendi and *mori-kwendi, the Light-folk and the Dark-folk. These terms appear to go back to  the period before the Separation, or rather to the time of the debate among the Quendi concerning  the invitation of the Valar. They were evidently made by the party favourable to Orome, and  referred originally to those who desired the Light of Valinor (where the ambassadors of the Elves  reported that there was no darkness), and those who did not wish for a place in which there was no  night. But already before the final separation *mori-kwendi may have referred to the glooms and the  clouds dimming the sun and the stars during the War of the Valar and Melkor,(6) so that the term  from the beginning had a tinge of scorn, implying that such folk were not averse to the shadows of  Melkor upon Middle-earth.    The lineal descendants of these terms survived only in the languages of Aman. The Quenya forms  were Kalaquendi and Moriquendi. The Kalaquendi in Quenya applied only to the Elves who actually  lived or had lived in Aman; and the Moriquendi was applied to all others, whether they had come on  the March or not. The latter were regarded as greatly inferior to the Kalaquendi, who had  experienced the Light of Valinor, and had also acquired far greater knowledge and powers by their  association with the Valar and Maiar. In the period of Exile the Noldor modified their use of these  terms, which was offensive to the Sindar. Kalaquendi went out of use, except in written Noldorin  lore. Moriquendi was now applied to all other Elves, except the Noldor and Sindar, that is to Avari  or to any kind of Elves that at the time of the coming of the Noldor had not long dwelt in  Beleriand and were not subjects of Elwe. It was never applied, however, to any but Elvish peoples.  The old distinction, when made, was represented by the new terms Amanyar 'those of Aman', and  Uamanyar or Umanyar 'those not of Aman', beside the longer forms Amaneldi and Umaneldi.
 3. Quendya, in the Noldorin dialect Quenya. This word remained in ordinary use, but it was only  used as a noun 'the Quendian language'. (Note 4, p. 407) This use of Quendya must have arisen in  Aman, while Quendi still remained in general use. Historically, and in the more accurate use of the  linguistic Loremasters, Quenya included the dialect of the Teleri, which though divergent (in some  points from days before settlement in Aman, such as *kw > p), remained generally intelligible to  the Vanyar and Noldor. But in ordinary use it was applied only to the dialects of the Vanyar and  Noldor, the differences between which only appeared later, and remained, up to the period just  before the Exile, of minor importance. In the use of the Exiles Quenya naturally came to mean the  language of the Noldor, developed in Aman, as distinct from other tongues, whether Elvish or not.  But the Noldor did not forget its connexion with the old word Quendi, and still regarded the name  as implying 'Elvish', that is the chief Elvish tongue, the noblest, and the one most nearly  preserving the ancient character of Elvish speech. For a note on the Elvish words for 'language',  especially among the Noldorin Loremasters, see Appendix D (p. 391).  
4. Elda and Eldo. The original distinction between these forms as meaning 'one of the Star-folk,  or Elves in general', and one of the 'Marchers', became obscured by the close approach of the  forms. The form Eldo went out of use, and Elda remained the chief word for 'Elf' in Quenya. But it  was not in accurate use held to include the Avari (when they were remembered or considered); i.e.  it took on the sense of Eldo. It may, however, have been partly due to its older sense that in  popular use it was the word ordinarily employed for any Elf, that is, as an equivalent of the  Quende of the Loremasters. When one of the Elves of Aman spoke of the Eldalie, 'the Elven-folk', he  meant vaguely all the race of Elves, though he was probably not thinking of the Avari.    For, of course, the special kinship of the Amanyar with those left in Beleriand (or Hekeldamar)  was remembered, especially by the Teleri. When it was necessary to distinguish these two branches  of the Eldar (or properly Eldor), those who had come to Aman were called the Odzeldi N Oareldi, for  which another form (less used) was Auzeldi, N Aureldi; those who had remained behind were the  Hekeldi. These terms naturally belonged rather to history than everyday speech, and in the period  of the Exile they fell out of use, being unsuitable to the situation in Beleriand. The Exiles still  claimed to be Amanyar, but in practice this term usually now meant those Elves remaining in Aman,  while the Exiles called themselves Etyangoldi 'Exiled Noldor', or simply (since the great majority  of their clan had come into exile) Noldor. All the subjects of Elwe they called Sindar or  'Grey-elves'.    
 Telerin. 1. The derivatives of *KWEN were more sparingly represented in the Telerin dialects, of  Aman or Beleriand. This was in part due to the Common Telerin change of kw > p, (Note 5, p. 407)  which caused *pen < *kwen to clash with the PQ stem *PEN 'lack, be without', and also with some of  the derivatives of *PED 'slope, slant down' (e.g. *penda 'sloping'). Also the Teleri felt  themselves to be a separate people, as compared with the Vanyar and Noldor, whom taken together  they outnumbered. This sentiment began before the Separation, and increased on the March and in  Beleriand. In consequence they did not feel strongly the need for a general word embracing all  Elves, until they came in contact with other non-Elvish Incarnates. As a pronoun enclitic (e.g. in  aipen, Q aiquen; ilpen, Q ilquen) *kwen survived in Telerin; but few of the compounds with pen 'man' remained in ordinary use, except arpen 'noble (man)', and the derived adjective arpenia.
 Pendi, the dialectal equivalent of Q Quendi, survived only as a learned word of the historians,  used with reference to ancient days before the Separation; the adjective *Pendia (the equivalent of Quendya) had fallen out of use.. (Note 6, p. 408) The Teleri had little interest in linguistic  lore, which they left to the Noldor. They did not regard their language as a 'dialect' of Quenya,  but called it Lindarin or Lindalambe. Quenya they called Goldorin or Goldolambe; for they had few contacts with the Vanyar.  
The old compounds in Telerin form Calapendi and Moripendi survived in historical use; but since  the Teleri in Aman remained more conscious of their kinship with the Elves left in Beleriand, while  Calapendi was used, as Kalaquendi in Quenya, to refer only to the Elves of Aman, Moripendi was not  applied to the Elves of Telerin origin who had not reached Aman.  
2. Ello and Ella. The history of the meanings of these words was almost identical with that of the  corresponding Elda and Eldo in Quenya. In Telerin the -o form became preferred, so that generally T  Ello was the equivalent of Q Elda. But Ella remained in use in quasi-adjectival function (e.g. as  the first element in loose or genitival compounds): thus the equivalent of Q Eldalie was in T  Ellalie.    In contrast to the Elloi left in Beleriand those in Aman were in histories called Audel, pl.  Audelli. Those in Beleriand were the Hecelloi of Heculbar (or Hecellubar).  
Sindarin. 1. Derivatives of *KWEN were limited to the sense: pronominal 'one, somebody, anybody',  and to a few old compounds that survived. PQ *kwende, *kwendi disappeared altogether. The reasons  for this were partly the linguistic changes already cited; and partly the circumstances in which  the Sindar lived, until the return of the Noldor, and the coming of Men. The linguistic changes  made the words unsuitable for survival; the circumstances removed all practical need for the term.  The old unity of the Elves had been broken at the Separation. The Elves of Beleriand were isolated,  without contact with any other people, Elvish or of other kind; and they were all of one clan and  language: Telerin (or Lindarin). Their own language was the only one that they ever heard; and they  needed no word to distinguish it, nor to distinguish themselves.  
As a pronoun, usually enclitic, the form pen, mutated ben, survived. A few compounds survived,  such as rochben 'rider' (m. or f.), orodben 'a mountaineer' or 'one living in the mountains', arphen 'a noble'. Their plurals were made by i-affection, originally carried through the word: as  roechbin, oerydbin, erphin, but the normal form of the first element was often restored when the nature of the composition remained evident: as rochbin, but always erphin. These words had no  special association with Elves.  
 Associated with these compounds were the two old words Calben (Celbin) and Morben (Moerbin). On  the formal relation of these to Quenya Kalaquendi and Moriquendi see p. 362. They had no reference  to Elves, except by accident of circumstance. Celbin retained what was, as has been said, probably  its original meaning: all Elves other than the Avari; and it included the Sindar. It was in fact  the equivalent (when one was needed) of the Quenya Eldar, Telerin Elloi. But it referred to Elves  only because no other people qualified for the title. Moerbin was similarly an equivalent for  Avari; but that it did not mean only 'Dark-elves' is seen by its ready application to other  Incarnates, when they later became known. By the Sindar anyone dwelling outside Beleriand, or  entering their realm from outside, was called a Morben. The first people of this kind to be met  were the Nandor, who entered East Beleriand over the passes of the Mountains before the return of  Morgoth; soon after his return came the first invasions of his Orcs from the North.(7) Somewhat  later the Sindar became aware of Avari, who had crept in small and secret groups into Beleriand  from the South. Later came the Men of the Three Houses, who were friendly; and later still Men of  other kinds. All these were at first acquaintance called Moerbin. (Note 7, p. 408) But when the  Nandor were recog nized as kinsfolk of Lindarin origin and speech (as was still recognizable), they  were received into the class of Celbin. The Men of the Three Houses were also soon removed from the  class of Moerbin. (Note 8, p. 408) hey were given their own name, Edain, and were seldom actually  called Celbin, but they were recognized as belonging to this class, which became . practically  equivalent to 'peoples in alliance in the War against Morgoth'. The Avari thus remained the chief  examples of Moerbin. Any individual Avar who joined with or was admitted among the Sindar (it  rarely happened) became a Calben; but the Avari in general remained secretive, hostile to the  Eldar, and untrustworthy; and they dwelt in hidden places in the deeper woods, or in caves. (Note  9, p. 408) Moerbin as applied to them is usually translated 'Dark-elves', partly because Moriquendi  in the Quenya of the Exiled Noldor usually referred to them. But that no special reference to Elves  was intended by the Sindarin word is shown by the fact that Moerbin was at once applied to the new  bands of Men (Easterlings) that appeared before the Battle of the Nirnaeth. (Note 9, p. 408) If in Sindarin an Avar, as distinct from other kinds of Morben, was intended, he was called Mornedhel.
2. Edhel, pl. Edhil. In spite of its ultimate derivation (see p. 360) this was the general word  for 'Elf, Elves'. In the earlier days it naturally referred only to the Eldarin Sindar, for no  other kind was ever seen; but later it was freely applied to Elves of any kind that entered  Beleriand. It was however only used in these two forms.    The masculine and feminine forms were Ellon m. and Elleth f. and the class-plural was Eldrim,  later Elrim, when this was not replaced by the more commonly used Eledhrim (see below). The form  without the m. and f. suffixes was not in use, and survived only in some old compounds, especially  personal names, in the form el, pl. il, as a final element. The form Elen, pl. Elin was only used  in histories or the works of the Loremasters, as a word to include all Elves (Eldar and Avari). But  the class-plural Eledhrim was the usual word for 'all the Elvish race', whenever such an expression  was needed.    All these words and forms, whatever their etymologies (see above), were applicable to any kind of  Elf. In fact Edhel was properly applied only to Eldar; Ell- may have a mixed origin; and Elen was  an ancient general word. (Note 10, p. 410)
3. The Sindar had no general name for themselves as distinct from other varieties of Elf, until  other kinds entered Beleriand. The descendant of the old clan name *Lindai (Q Lindar) had fallen  out of normal use, being no longer needed in a situation were all the Edhil were of the same kind,  and people were more aware of the growing differences in speech and other matters between those  sections of the Elves that lived in widely sundered parts of a large and mostly pathless land. They  were thus in ordinary speech all Edhil, but some belonged to one region and some to another: they were Falathrim from the sea-board of West Beleriand, or lathrim from Doriath (the land of the Fence, or iath), or Mithrim who had gone north from Beleriand and inhabited the regions about the  great lake that afterwards bore their name. (Note 11, p. 410)  
 The old clan-name *Lindai survived in the compound Glinnel, pl. Glinnil, a word only known in  historical lore, and the equivalent of Quenya Teleri or Lindar; see the Notes on the Clan-names  below. All the Sindarin subjects of King Elu-Thingol, as distinguished from the incoming Noldor,  were sometimes later called the Eluwaith. Dunedhil 'West-elves' (the reference being to the West of  Middle-earth) was a term made to match Dunedain 'West-men' (applied only to the Men of the Three  Houses). But with the growing amalgamation, outside Doriath, of the Noldor and Sindar into one  people using the Sindarin tongue as their daily speech, this soon became applied to both Noldor and  Sindar. While the Noldor were still distinct, and whenever it was desired to recall their  difference of origin, they were usually called Odhil (sg. Odhel). This as has been seen was  originally a name for all the Elves that left Beleriand for Aman. These were also called by the  Sindar Gwanwen, pl. Gwenwin (or Gwanwel, Gwenwil) 'the departed': cf. Q vanwa. This term, which  could not suitably be applied to those who had come back, remained the usual Sindarin name for the  Elves that remained in Aman. Odhil thus became specially the name of the Exiled Noldor. In this  sense the form Godhel, pl. Godhil soon replaced the older form. It seems to have been due to the  influence of the clan-name Golodh, pl. Goelydh; or rather to a deliberate blending of the two  words. The old clan-name had not fallen out of memory (for the Noldor and the Sindar owing to the  great friendship of Finwe and Elwe were closely associated during their sojourn in Beleriand before  the Departure) and it had in consequence a genuine Sindarin form (< CE *ngolodo). But the form  Golodh seems to have been phonetically unpleas- ing to the Noldor. The name was, moreover, chiefly  used by those who wished to mark the difference between the Noldor and the Sindar, and to ignore  the dwelling of the Noldor in Aman which might give them a claim to superiority. This was  especially the case in Doriath, where King Thingol was hostile to the Noldorin chieftains, Feanor  and his sons, and Fingolfin, because of their assault upon the Teleri in Aman, the people of his  brother Olwe. The Noldor, therefore, when using Sindarin, never applied this name (Golodh) to  themselves, and it fell out of use among those friendly to them.
4. Eglan, pl. Eglain, Egladrim. This name, 'the Forsaken', was, as has been said, given by the  Sindar to themselves. But it was not in Beleriand a name for all the Elves who remained there, as  were the related names, Hekeldi, Hecelloi, in Aman. It applied only to those who wished to depart,  and waited long in vain for the return of Ulmo, taking up their abode on or near the coasts. There  they became skilled in the building and management of ships. Cirdan was their lord.    Cirdan's folk were made up both of numbers of the following of Olwe, who straying or lingering  came to the shores too late, and also of many of the following of Elwe, who abandoned the search  for him and did not wish to be separated for ever from their kin and friends. This folk remained in  the desire of Aman for long years, and they were among the most friendly to the Exiles.  They continued to call themselves the Eglain, and the regions where they dwelt Eglamar and  Eglador. The latter name fell out of general use. It had originally been applied to all western  Beleriand between Mount Taras and the Bay of Balar, its eastern boundary being roughly along the  River Narog. Eglamar, however, remained the name of the 'Home of the Eglain': the sea-board from  Cape Andras to the headland of Bar-in-Myl ('Home of the Gulls'),(8) which included the ship-havens  of Cirdan at Brithonbar (9) and at the head of the firth of Eglarest.    The Eglain became a people somewhat apart from the inland Elves, and at the time of the coming of  the Exiles their language was in many ways different. (Note 12, p. 411) But they acknowledged the  high-kingship of Thingol, and Cirdan never took the title of king.(10)  
 This name, evidently made by the Eldar at the time of the Separation, is found in histories in the  Quenya form Avari, and the Telerin form Abari. It was still used by the historians of the Exiled  Noldor, though it hardly differed from Moriquendi, which (see above) was no longer used by the  Exiles to include Elves of Eldarin origin. The plural Evair was known to Sindarin loremasters, but  was no longer in use. Such Avari as came into Beleriand were, as has been said, called Morben, or  Mornedhel.  
 Author's Note 7.  
 The Dwarves were in a special position. They claimed to have known Beleriand before even the Eldar  first came there; and there do appear to have been small groups dwelling furtively in the highlands  west of Sirion from a very early date: they attacked and waylaid the Elves by stealth, and the  Elves did not at first recognize them as Incarnates, but thought them to be some kind of cunning  animal, and hunted them. By their own account they were fugitives, driven into the wilderness by  their own kin further east, and later they were called the Noegyth Nibin (32) or Petty-dwarves, for  they had become smaller than the norm of their kind, and filled with hate for all other creatures.  When the Elves met the powerful Dwarves of Nogrod and Belegost, in the eastern side of the  Mountains, they recognized them as Incarnates, for they had skill in many crafts, and learned the  Elvish speech readily for purposes of traffic. At first the Elves were in doubt concerning them,  believing them to be related to Orcs and creatures of Morgoth; but when they found that, though  proud and unfriendly, they could be trusted to keep any treaties that they made, and did not molest  those who left them in peace, they traded with them and let them come and go as they would. /.../.

 WJ (HME11)/3:4. Quendi and Eldar. Appendix A. Elvish names for Men.
 The first Elves that Men met in the world were Avari, some of whom were friendly to them, but the  most avoided them or were hostile (according to the tales of Men). What names Men and Elves gave to  one another in those remote days, of which little was remembered when the Loremasters in Beleriand  made the acquaintance of the After-born, there is now no record. By the Dunedain the Elves were  called Nimir (the Beautiful).(18) The Eldar did not meet Men of any kind or race until the Noldor  had long returned to Beleriand and were at war with Morgoth. The Sindar did not even know of their  existence, until the coming of the Nandor; and these brought only rumour of a strange people (whom  they had not themselves seen) wandering in the lands of the East beyond the Hithaeglir. From these  uncertain tales the Sindar concluded that the 'strange people' were either some diminished race of  the Avari, or else related to Orcs, creatures of Melkor, bred in mockery of the true Quendi. But  the Noldor had already heard of Men in Aman. Their knowledge came in the first place from Melkor  and was perverted by his malice, but before the Exile those who would listen had learned more of  the truth from the Valar, and they knew that the newcomers were akin to themselves, being also  Children of Iluvatar, though differing in gifts and fate. Therefore the Noldor made names for the  Second Race of the Children, calling them the Atani 'the Second Folk'. /.../.

 WJ (HME11)/3:4. Quendi and Eldar. Appendix B. Elvish names for the Dvarwes.  
The Sindar had long known the Dwarves, and had entered into peaceful relations with them, though  of trade and exchange of skills rather than of true friendship, before the coming of the Exiles.  The name (in the plural) that the Dwarves gave to themselves was Khazad, and this the Sindar  rendered as they might in the terms of their own speech, giving it the form *chadod > *chadaud >  Hadhod. (Note 22, p. 412) Hadhod, Hadhodrim was the name which they continued to use in actual  intercourse with the Dwarves; but among themselves they referred to the Dwarves usually as the  Naugrim 'the Stunted Folk'. The adjective naug 'dwarf(ed), stunted', however, was not used by  itself for one of the Khazad. The word used was Nogoth, pl. Noegyth, class-plural Nogothrim (as an  occasional equivalent of Naugrim). (Note 23, p. 413) They also often referred to the Dwarves as a  race by the name Dornhoth 'the Thrawn Folk', because of their stubborn mood as well as bodily  toughness.  
 The Exiles heard of the Dwarves first from the Sindar, and when using the Sindarin tongue  naturally adopted the already established names. But later in Eastern Beleriand the Noldor came  into independent relations with the Dwarves of Eryd Lindon, and they adapted the name Khazad anew  for use in Quenya, giving it the form Kasar, pl. Kasari or Kasari. (Note 24, p. 413) This was the  word most commonly used in Quenya for the Dwarves, the partitive plural being Kasalli, and the  race-name Kasallie. But the Sindarin names were also adapted or imitated, a Dwarf being called  Nauko or Norno (the whole people Naukalie or Nornalie). Norno was the more friendly term. (Note 25,  p. 413)    The Petty-dwarves. See also Note 7 / Fr.89, the end/. The Eldar did not at first recognize these  as Incarnates, for they seldom caught sight of them in clear light. They only became aware of their  existence indeed when they attacked the Eldar by stealth at night, or if they caught them alone in  wild places. The Eldar therefore thought that they were a kind of cunning two-legged animals living  in caves, and they called them Levain tad-dail, or simply Tad-dail, and they hunted them. But after  the Eldar had made the acquaintance of the Naugrim, the Tad-dail were recognized as a variety of  Dwarves and were left alone. There were then few of them surviving, and they were very wary, and  too fearful to attack any Elf, unless their hiding-places were approached too nearly. The Sindar  gave them the names Nogotheg 'Dwarf- let', or Nogoth niben 'Petty Dwarf'.(20)  
 The great Dwarves despised the Petty-dwarves, who were (it is said) the descendants of Dwarves who  had left or been driven our from the Communities, being deformed or undersized, or slothful and  rebellious. But they still acknowledged their kinship and resented any injuries done to them.  Indeed it was one of their grievances against the Eldar that they had hunted and slain their lesser  kin, who had settled in Beleriand before the Elves came there. This grievance was set aside, when  treaties were made between the Dwarves and the Sindar, in consideration of the plea that the  Petty-dwarves had never declared themselves to the Eldar, nor presented any claims to land or  habitations, but had at once attacked the newcomers in darkness and ambush. But the grievance still  smouldered, as was later seen in the case of Mim, the only Petty-dwarf who played a memorable part  in the Annals of Beleriand.    The Noldor, for use in Quenya, translated these Sindarin names for the Petty-dwarves by Attalyar  'Bipeds', and Pikinaukor or Pitya-naukor.  

 WJ (HME11)/3:4. Quendi and Eldar. Appendix C. Elvish names for the Orcs.
 The opening paragraphs of this Appendix have been given in Morgoth's Ring p. 416 and are not  repeated here / Fr.170: here I restore it for the reader's convinience:  It is not here the place to debate the question of the origin of the Orcs. They were bred by  Melkor, and their breeding was the most wicked and lamentable of his works in Arda, but not the  most terrible. For clearly they were meant in his malice to be a mockery of the Children of  Iluvatar, wholly subservient to his will, and nursed in an unappeasable hatred of Elves and Men.  The Orcs of the later wars, after the escape of Melkor-Morgoth and his return to Middle-earth,  were neither spirits nor phantoms, but living creatures, capable of speech and of some crafts and  organization, or at least capable of learning such things from higher creatures or from their  Master. They bred and multiplied rapidly whenever left undisturbed. It is unlikely, as a  consideration of the ultimate origin of this race would make clearer, that the Quendi had met any  Orcs of this kind, before their finding by Oromë and the separation of Eldar and Avari.  But it is known that Melkor had become aware of the Quendi before the Valar began their war  against him, and the joy of the Elves in Middle-earth had already been darkened by shadows of fear.  Dreadful shapes had begun to haunt the borders of their dwellings, and some of their people  vanished into the darkness and were heard of no more. Some of these things may have been phantoms  and delusions; but some were, no doubt, shapes taken by the servants of Melkor, mocking and  degrading the very forms of the Children. For Melkor had in his service great numbers of the Maiar,  who had the power, as had their Master, of taking visible and tangible shape in Arda. - End of the  restored passage/.  The words that now follow, 'these shapes and the terror that they inspired', refer to the  'dreadful shapes' that haunted the dwellings of the Elves in the land of their awakening.    For these shapes and the terror that they inspired the element chiefly used in the ancient tongue  of the Elves appears to have been *RUKU. In all the Eldarin tongues (and, it is said, in the Avarin  also) there are many derivatives of this stem, having such ancient forms as: ruk-, rauk-, uruk-,  urk(u), runk-, rukut/s, besides the strengthened stem gruk-, and the elaborated guruk-, nguruk.  (Note 27, p. 415) Already in PQ that word must have been formed which had in CE the form *rauku or  *rauko. This was applied to the larger and more terrible of the enemy shapes. But ancient were also  the forms uruk, urku/o, and the adjectival urka 'horrible'. (Note 28, p. 415) In Quenya we meet the  noun urko, pl. urqui, deriving as the plural form shows from *urku or *uruku. In Sindarin is found  the corresponding urug; but there is in frequent use the form orch, which must be derived from  *urko or the adjectival *urka.    In the lore of the Blessed Realm the Q urko naturally seldom occurs, except in tales of the  ancient days and the March, and then is vague in meaning, referring to anything that caused fear to  the Elves, any dubious shape or shadow, or prowling creature. In Sindarin urug has a similar use.  It might indeed be translated 'bogey'. But the form orch seems at once to have been applied to the  Orcs, as soon as they appeared; and Orch, pl. Yrch, class-plural Orchoth remained the regular name  for these creatures in Sindarin afterwards. The kinship, though not precise equivalence, of S orch  to Q urko, urqui was recognized, and in Exilic Quenya urko was commonly used to translate S orch,  though a form showing the influence of Sindarin, orko, pl. orkor and orqui, is also often found.    These names, derived by various routes from the Elvish tongues, from Quenya, Sindarin, Nandorin,  and no doubt Avarin dialects, went far and wide, and seem to have been the source of the names for  the Orcs in most of the languages of the Elder Days and the early ages of which there is any  record. The form in Adunaic urku, urkhu may be direct from Quenya or Sindarin; and this form  underlies the words for Orc in the languages of Men of the North-West in the Second and Third Ages.  The Orcs themselves adopted it, for the fact that it referred to terror and detestation delighted  them. The word uruk that occurs in the Black Speech, devised (it is said) by Sauron to serve as a  lingua franca for his subjects, was probably borrowed by him from the Elvish tongues of earlier  times. It referred, however, specially to the trained and disciplined Orcs of the regiments of  Mordor. Lesser breeds seem to have been called snaga.(22)    The Dwarves claimed to have met and fought the Orcs long before the Eldar in Beleriand were aware  of them. It was indeed their obvious detestation of the Orcs, and their willingness to assist in  any war against them, that convinced the Eldar that the Dwarves were no creatures of Morgoth.  Nonetheless the Dwarvish name for Orcs, Rukhs, pl. Rakhas, seems to show affinity to the Elvish  names, and was possibly ultimately derived from Avarin.    The Eldar had many other names for the Orcs, but most of these were 'kennings', descriptive terms  of occasional use. One was, however, in frequent use in Sindarin: more often than Orchoth the  general name for Orcs as a race that appears in the Annals was Glamhoth. Glam meant 'din, uproar,  the confused yelling and bellowing of beasts', so that Glamboth in origin meant more or less 'the  Yelling-horde', with reference to the horrible clamour of the Orcs in battle or when in pursuit -  they could be stealthy enough at need. But Glamhoth became so firmly associated with Orcs that Glam  alone could be used of any body of Orcs, and a singular form was made from it, glamog. (Compare the  name of the sword Glamdring.)
Note. The word used in translation of Q urko, S orch, is Orc. But that is because of the  similarity of the ancient English word orc, 'evil spirit or bogey', to the Elvish words. There is  possibly no connexion between them. The English word is now generally supposed to be derived from  Latin Orcus. The word for Orc in the now forgotten tongue of the Druedain in the realm of Gondor is  recorded as being (? in the plural) gorgun. This is possibly derived ultimately from the Elvish  words.  
 Author's Notes to Quendi and Eldar.  
 Note 27 (p. 390). *(n)guruk is due to a combination of *(g)ruk with *NGUR 'horror', seen in S  gorth, gorthob 'horror, horrible', and (reduplicated) gorgor 'extreme horror'.
 Note 28 (p. 390) Some other derivatives are in Quenya: rukin 'I feel fear or horror' (constructed  with 'from' of the object feared); ruhta- 'terrify'; rukima 'terrible'; rauko and arauko < *grauk-)  'a powerful, hostile, and terrible creature', especially in the compound Valarauko 'Demon of  Might', applied later to the more powerful and terrible of the Maia servants of Morgoth. In  Sindarin appear, for instance, raug and graug, and the com- pound Balrog (equivalents of Q rauko,  etc.); groga- 'feel terror'; gruitha 'terrify'; gorog (< *guruk) 'horror'.
 /Comm. Note 22 by Christ.Tolk./. Cf. Appendix F to The Lord of the Rings, p. 409: 'The lesser  kinds were called, especially by the Uruk-hai, snaga "slave".'

 a. PM (HME12)/Foreword. Note on the text.
 One concerns the translation of the curse of the Orc from the Dark Tower given on p. 83 / Fr.193b/. When writing this passage I had forgotten that Mr Carl Hostetter, editor of the  periodical Vinyar Tengwar, had pointed out in the issue (no. 26) for November 1992 that there is a  translation of the words in a note to one of the typescripts of Appendix E (he being unaware of the  existence of the certainly earlier version that I have printed); and I had also overlooked the fact  that a third version is found among notes on words and phrases 'in alien speech' in The Lord of the  Rings. All three differ significantly (bagronk, for example, being rendered both as 'cesspool' and  as 'torture (chamber)'); from which it seems clear that my father was at this time devising  interpretations of the words, whatever he may have intended them to mean when he first wrote them.]

b. PM (HME12)/1:2. The Appendix on Languages. Notes. Note 6.  There is scarcely anything in the last texts that calls for special notice, but it should be  recorded that in the penultimate draft my father revealed the meaning of the sentence in the Black  Speech uttered by one of the Orcs who was guarding Pippin in the chapter The Uruk-hai (TT p. 48):  Ugluk u bagronk sha pushdug Saruman-glob bubhosh skai. At the end of the section Orcs and the Black  Speech (RK p. 410) this text reads: ... while the curse of the Mordor-orc in Chapter 3 of Book  Three is in the more debased form used by the soldiers of the Dark Tower, of whom Grishnakh was the  captain. "Ugluk to the cesspool, sha! the dungfilth; the great Saruman-fool, skai!"  

c. /H.Fauskanger's resummarizing/
 Then there is the curse of the Mordor-orc: Ugluk u bagronk sha pushdug Saruman-glob bubhosh skai  (LotR2 III:3). In PM:83, this is translated "Ugluk to the cesspool, sha! the dungfilth; the great  Saruman-fool, skai!" (There also exists another translation; see below.) /.../. A quite different  translation of the Orkish curse has been published in Vinyar Tengwar: "Ugluk to the dung-pit with  stinking Saruman-filth, pig-guts, gah!" This translation seems to be later than the one mentioned  above. It seems that Tolkien had forgotten the original translation and simply made up a new one.

PM (HME12)/1:1. The Prologue.
He /Gollum/ ate any living thing, even goblin, if he could catch and strangle it without a fight.

a. PM (HME12)/1:1. The Appendix on Languages. First draft, . The orcs and goblins had languages of  their own, as hideous as all things that they made or used; and since some remnant of good will,  and true thought and perception, is required to keep even a base language alive and useful even for  base purposes, their tongues were endlessly diversified in form, as they were deadly monotonous in  purport, fluent only in the expression of abuse, of hatred and fear. For which reason they and  their kind used (and still use) the languages of nobler creatures in such intercourse as they must  have between tribe and tribe.(Note 5 / Fr.195j/)  
b. PM (HME12)/1:1. The Appendix on Languages. First draft, . /Note confusing Noldor with goblins  in "popular fancy"/. The word Gnomish is used above; and it would be an apt name, since whatever  Paracelsus may have thought (if indeed he invented the word), to the learned it suggests knowledge. And their own true name in High-Elven is Noldor, Those that Know; for of the Three Kindreds of the Elves in the beginning, ever the Noldor were distinguished both by their knowledge of things that are and were in this world, and by the desire to know yet more. Yet they were not in fact in any way like to the gnomes of our learned theory, and still less to the gnomes of popular fancy in which they have been confused with dwarves and goblins, and other small creatures of the earth. They belonged to a race high and beautiful, the Elder Children of the World, who now are gone. Tall they were, fairskinned and grey-eyed, though their locks were dark, and their voices knew more melodies than any mortal speech that now is heard.
c. PM (HME12)/1:1. The Appendix on Languages. Later Version, The Languages at the end of the Third Age /F2+F1/, . More remarkable it may be thought that the Common Speech had also been learned by other races, Dwarves, Orcs, and even Trolls.
d. PM (HME12)/1:1. The Appendix on Languages. Later Version, The Languages at the end of the Third Age /F2+F1/, . The Orcs had a language of their own, devised for them by the Dark Lord of old, but it was so full of harsh and hideous sounds and vile words that other mouths found it difficult to compass, and few indeed were willing to make the attempt. And these creatures, being filled with all malice and hatred, so that they did not love even their own kind, had soon diversified their barbarous and unwritten speech into as many jargons as there were groups or settlements of Orcs. Thus they were driven to use the language of their enemies even in conversing with other Orcs of  different breed or distant dwellings. In the Misty Mountains, and in other lingering Orc-holds in  the far North-west, they had indeed abandoned their native tongue and used the Common Speech, though in such a fashion as to make it scarcely less unlovely than the Orkish. 
e. PM (HME12)/1:1. The Appendix on Languages. Later Version, The Languages at the end of the Third Age /F2+F1/, . Trolls, in their beginning creatures of lumpish and brutal nature, had nothing that  could be called true language of their own; but the evil Power had at various times made use of  them, teaching them what little they could learn, and even crossing their breed with that of the  larger Orcs. Trolls thus took such language as they could from the Orcs, and in the west-lands the  Trolls of the hills and mountains spoke a debased form of the Common Westron speech.  
f. PM (HME12)/1:1. The Appendix on Languages. Later Version, The Languages at the end of the Third Age /F2+F1/, . The speech of Orcs was actually more filthy and degraded than I have shown it. If I  had tried to use an 'English' more near to the reality it would have been intolerably disgusting  and to many readers hardly intelligible.
g. PM (HME12)/1:1. The Appendix on Languages. Commentary.   to §16 /of F2+F1/. 'The Orcs had a language of their own, devised for them by the Dark Lord of  old': in view of what is said in §7, 'the Eldar were at that time engaged in a ceaseless war with  the Dark Lord of that Age, one greater far than Sauron', this may seem to refer to Morgoth; but cf.  Appendix F (RK p. 409), 'It is said that the Black Speech was devised by Sauron in the Dark Years'.
h. PM (HME12)/1:1. The Appendix on Languages. Commentary.  
/.../ This is the most detailed account that my father wrote of his elaborate and distinctive fiction of translation, of transposition and substitution. /It says.../ 'Modern English' is lingua franca spoken by all people (except a few secluded folk like Lorien) - but little and ill by orcs.

i. PM (HME12)/1:1. The Appendix on Languages. Late Version, The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age /F4/. /Comm./. The next typescript, F 4, still called The Languages of the Third Age but  changed to The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age, followed the major revision of 1951. My  father's long experimentation with the structure and expression of this Appendix now issued in his  most lucid account of the Elvish languages, in which the terms Sindar and Sindarin at last  appeared, and the acquisition of the Grey-elven tongue by the exiled Noldor.  
Lastly, it was in F 4 that there entered the passage concerning the new race of Trolls that appeared at the end of the Third Age. Here the name was first Horg-hai, but changed as my father typed the text to Olg-hai (Olog-hai in RK, p. 410). The account of them did not differ from the final form except in the statement of their origin: That Sauron bred them none doubted, though from what stock was not known. Some held that they were a cross-breed between trolls and the larger Orcs; others that they were indeed not trolls at all but giant Orcs. Yet there was no kinship from  the beginning between the stone-trolls and the Orcs that they might breed together;(Note 5 / Fr.195j/) while the Olg-hai were in fashion of mind and body quite unlike even the largest of Orc-kind.  

j. PM (HME12)/1:1. The Appendix on Languages. Notes. Note 5.  
With this cf. the passage in F 2 concerning Trolls (p. 36, §17 / Fr.195e/): 'the evil Power had at various times made use of them, teaching them what little they could learn, and even crossing their breed with that of the larger Orcs.'

k. The Lord of the Rings. Appendix F I. The Languages and Peoples of the Third Age.
Orcs and the Black Speech. Orc is the form of the name that other races had for this foul people  as it was in the language of Rohan. In Sindarin it was orch. Related, no doubt, was the word uruk  of the Black Speech, though this was applied as a rule only to the great soldier-orcs that at this  time issued from Mordor and Isengard. The lesser kinds were called, especially by the Uruk-hai,  snaga 'slave'.
The Orcs were first bred by the Dark Power of the North in the Elder Days. It is said that they bad no language of their own, but took what they could of other tongues and perverted it to their own liking; yet they made only brutal jargons, scarcely sufficient even for their own needs, unless  it were for curses and abuse. And these creatures, being filled with malice, hating even their own kind, quickly developed as many barbarous dialects as there were groups or settlements of their race, so that their Orkish speech was of little use to them in intercourse between different tribes. So it was that in the Third Age Orcs used for communication between breed and breed the Westron  tongue; and many indeed of the older tribes, such as those that still lingered in the North and in  the Misty Mountains, had long used the Westron as their native language, though in such a fashion  as to make it hardly less unlovely than Orkish. In this jargon tark, 'man of Gondor', was a debased  form of tarkil, a Quenya word used in Westron for one of Numenorean descent; see III. It is said that the Black Speech was devised by Sauron in the Dark Years, and that he bad desired to make it the language of all those that served him, but he failed in that purpose. From the Black Speech, however, were derived many of the words that were in the Third Age wide-spread among the Orcs, such as ghâsh 'fire', but after the first overthrow of Sauron this language in its ancient  form was forgotten by all but the Nazgul. When Sauron arose again, it became once more the language of Barad-dur and of the captains of Mordor. The inscription on the Ring was in the ancient Black Speech, while the curse of the Mordor-orc in II, 53. was in the more debased form used by the soldiers of the Dark Tower, of whom Grishnàkh was the captain. Sharku in that tongue means old man. Trolls. Troll has been used to translate the Sindarin Torog. In their beginning far back in the twilight of the Elder Days, these were creatures of dull and lumpish nature and had no more language than beasts. But Sauron had made use of them, teaching them what little they could learn,  and increasing their wits with wickedness. Trolls therefore took such language as they could master  from the Orcs; and in the Westlands the Stone-trolls spoke a debased form of the Common Speech.  But at the end of the Third Age a troll-race not before seen appeared in southern Mirkwood and in  the mountain borders of Mordor. Olog-hai they were called in the Black Speech. That Sauron bred  them none doubted, though from what stock was not known. Some held that they were not Trolls but  giant Orcs; but the Olog-hai were in fashion of body and mind quite unlike even the largest of  Orc-kind, whom they far surpassed in size and power. Trolls they were, but filled with the evil  will of their master: a fell race, strong, agile, fierce and cunning, but harder than stone. Unlike  the older race of the Twilight they could endure the Sun, so long as the will of Sauron held sway  over them. They spoke little, and the only tongue that they knew was the Black Speech of Barad-dur.

l. The Lord of the Rings. Appendix F II. On Translation.
But Orcs and Trolls spoke as they would, without love of words or things; and their language was  actually more degraded and filthy than I have shown it I do not suppose that any will wish for a  closer rendering, though models are easy to find. Much the same sort of talk can still be heard  among the orc-minded; dreary and repetitive with hatred and contempt, too long removed from good to  retain even verbal vigour, save in the ears of those to whom only the squalid sounds strong.

a. PM (HME12)/1:7. The Heirs of Elendil.
/c.2510 T.A./ There came a great assault from the North-east. Wild men out of the East crossed  Anduin north of the Emyn Muil and joining with Orcs out of the Misty Mountains overran the realm  (now sparsely populated) north of the White Mountains, pouring into the wold and plain of  Calenardon.

b. PM (HME12)/1:7. The Heirs of Elendil.
 Sauron stirs up mischief, and there is a great attack on Gondor. Orcs pour out of the Mountains  and of Mirkwood and join with Easterlings. Hador [> Cirion] gets help from the North. Eorl the  Young wins the victory of the Field of Celebrant and is given Calenardon or Rohan.

c. PM (HME12)/1:8. The Tale of Years of the Third Age. Version T3.
2510. A great host of Orcs, with Easterlings as allies, assail the northern borders of Gondor, and  occupy a great part of Calenardon. Gondor sends for help. Eorl the Young leads his people, the  Eotheod or Rohirrim, out of the North from the sources of Anduin, and rides to the help of Cirion,  Steward of Gondor. With his aid the great victory of the Field of Celebrant is won. Elladan and  Elrohir rode also in that battle. From that time forth the brethren never cease from war with the  Orcs because of Celebrian.

d. PM (HME12)/1:9. The Making of Appendix A. (iii) The House of Eorl.  
In the two thousand five hundred and tenth year of the Third Age a great peril threatened the land  of Gondor in the South and wild men out of the East assailed its northern borders, allying  themselves with Orcs of the mountains. The invaders overran and occupied Calenardon, the great  plains in the north of the realm. The Steward of Gondor sent north for help, for there had ever  been friendship between the men of Anduin's vale and the people of Gondor. Hearing of the need of  Gondor from afar Eorl set out with a great host of riders; and it was chiefly by his valour and the  valour of the horsemen of Eotheod that victory was obtained. In the great battle of the Field of  Celebrant the Easterlings and Orcs were utterly defeated and the horsemen of Eorl pursued them over  the plains of Calenardon until not one remained.

  e. UT/3:2. Cirion and Eorl. (iii) Cirion and Eorl.
In the days of Cirion the Steward there came a great assault by the Balchoth, who allied with Orcs  crossed the Anduin into the Wold and began the conquest of Calenardhon. From this deadly peril,  which would have brought ruin upon Gondor, the coming of Eorl the Young and the Rohirrim rescued  the realm.

PM (HME12)/1:7. The Heirs of Elendil.
Aragorn I (p. 196). In the rejected page of B he was 'lost in wilderness while hunting'; in the  replacement page he was 'lost in the wilderness; probably slain by orcs [> wolves].'

a. PM (HME12)/1:8. The Tale of Years of the Third Age. Version T2.
circa 2600. Celebrian is slain by Orcs on the road over the Mountains to visit Galadriel.  

b. PM (HME12)/1:8. The Tale of Years of the Third Age. Version T3.
2509. Celebrian, wife of Elrond, journeys to Lorien to visit Galadriel, her mother; but she is taken by Orcs in the passes of the mountains. She is rescued by Elrond and his sons, but after fear and torment she is no longer willing to remain in Middle-earth, and she departs to the Grey Havens and sails over Sea. (Note 32)  
 Note 32. As in the earliest text (p. 226 / Fr.198a/), T 3 states that Celebrian was slain by the  Orcs.

c. PM (HME12)/1:9. The Making of Appendix A. (ii). The Tale of Aragorn and Arwen.
Now the sons of Elrond did not hunt wild beasts, but they pursued the Orcs wherever they might  find them; and this they did because of Celebrian their mother, daughter of Galadriel. On a time  long ago, as she passed over the Mountains to visit her mother in the Land of Lorien, Orcs waylaid  the road, and she was taken captive by them and tormented; and though she was rescued by Elrond and  his sons, and brought home and tended, and her hurts of body were healed, she lay under a great  cloud of fear and she loved Middle-earth no longer; so that at the last Elrond granted her prayer,  and she passed to the Grey Havens and went into the West, never to return. Thus it befell that when  Aragorn was only two years of age Arathorn went riding with the sons of Elrond and fought with Orcs  that had made an inroad into Eriador.

d. The Lord of the Rings. Appendix A. I. The Numenorean Kings. (iii). Eriador, Arnor and the Heirs  of Isildur. The North-kingdom and the Dunedain.
 2509 Celebrian wife of Elrond was journeying to Lorien when she was waylaid in the Redhorn Pass,  and her escort being scattered by the sudden assault of the Orcs, she was seized and carried off.  She was pursued and rescued by Elladan and Elrohir, but not before she had suffered torment and had  received a poisoned wound. She was brought back to Imladris, and though healed in body by Elrond,  lost all delight in Middle-earth, and the next year went to the Havens and passed over Sea. And  later in the days of Arassuil, Orcs, multiplying again in the Misty Mountains, begin to ravage the  lands, and the Dunedain and the sons of Elrond fought with them.

e. The Lord of the Rings. Appendix B. The Tale of Years.
2509 Celebrian, journeying to Lorien, is waylaid in the Redhorn Pass, and receives a poisoned wound.
 2510 Celebrian departs over Sea.

f. LotR. 2:1. Many Meetings.
Long she /Arwen/ had been in the land of her mother's kin, in Lorien beyond the mountains, and was  but lately returned to Rivendell to her father's house. But her brothers, Elladan and Elrohir, were  out upon errantry: for they rode often far afield with the Rangers of the North, forgetting never  their mother's torment in the dens of the orcs.

PM (HME12)/1:8. The Tale of Years of the Third Age. Version T3. The opening statement concerning  the Four Ages.
/In TA/ The Dwarves became ever more secretive, and hid themselves in deep places, guarding their  hoards from their chief enemies, the dragons and the Orcs. One by one their ancient treasuries were  plundered, and they became a wandering and dwindling people.

PM (HME12)/1:8. The Tale of Years of the Third Age. Version T3.
2480. onwards Orcs again multiply in secret and occupy many deep places (especially those
anciently made by the Dwarves) in the Misty Mountains. They do this so stealthily that none are  aware of it, until they have great forces hidden and are ready to bar all the passes from Eriador  into Anduin's vales, according to the plan of their master in Dol Guldur. Orcs and Trolls occupy  parts of the now empty Mines of Moria.  
2747. Orcs passing far to the north raid down into Eriador. A large force invades the Shire.  Bandobras Took, second son of Isumbras III, defeats them at the Battle of the Greenfields in the  Northfarthing and slays the Orc-chief Golfimbul. This was the last battle in which Hobbits  (Periannath) were engaged until the end of the Third Age.  
2757. Rohan is overrun by Orcs and Easterlings. At the same time Gondor is attacked by the Corsairs of Umbar.  
2766. Thror the Dwarf, descendant of Durin, being now homeless and robbed of his treasure,  ventures into Moria, but is slain by an Orc in the dark. Thrain and Thorin escape. In vengeance for  Thror and in hope of reestablishing a kingdom the scattered Dwarves of Durin's race gather together  out of the North and make war on the Orcs of the Misty Mountains. The War of the Dwarves and Orcs  was long and terrible and fought largely in the dark in deep places.  
3019. /.../ The Host of the West enters Mordor and destroys all the Orc-holds. All Men that had  allied themselves with Sauron were slain or subjugated.  
Note 35. In very difficult scribbled notes at the end of T 3 my father asked himself: 'When were  the Dwarf and Goblin wars? When did Moria become finally desolate?' He noted that since the wars  were referred to by Thorin in The Hobbit they 'must have been recent', and suggested that there was  'an attempt to enter Moria in Thrain's time', perhaps 'an expedition from Erebor to Moria'. 'But  the appearance of the Balrog and the desolation of Moria must be more ancient, possibly as far back  as c.1980-2000'. He then wrote: 'After fall of Erebor Thror tried to visit Moria and was killed by  a goblin. The dwarves assembled a force and fought Orcs on east side of Moria and did great  slaughter, but could not enter Moria because of "the terror". Dain returns to the Iron Hills, but  Thorin and Thrain wander about.' Entries were then added to the text of T 3 which were taken up  into T 4. At this time the story was that Thrain and Thorin accompanied Thror, but made their  escape. - Much later the dates of the war were changed from 2766-9 to 2793-9.


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