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FRAGMENTA HISTORIAE ORCUM

Фрагменты истории орков и сопутствующие материалы по истории Тьмы
и расогенеза Арды

 

Задачи и структура настоящей работы.
Список сокращений.
Тематический индекс фрагментов по номерам
Фрагменты 1-50
Фрагменты 51-75
Фрагменты 76-100
Фрагменты 101-125
Фрагменты 126-150
Фрагменты 151-175
Фрагменты 176-200
Фрагменты 201-225
Фрагменты 226-250
Фрагменты 251-275
Фрагменты 276-300
Фрагменты 301-318


Задачи и структура настоящей работы.

Наша цель - снабдить читателя, интересующегося историей и культурой орков, полным сводом фрагментов толкиеновского корпуса, имеющих отношение к этой проблеме. Фрагменты приводятся в общем порядке следования HME 1-12, Silmarillion, UT, LR: Appendices, прочие мелкие материалы, LR: основной текст, Hobbit. Этот порядок определяется последовательность издания серии HME и сравнительной важностью остальных материалов. Иногда параллельные фрагменты разных текстов приводятся рядом друг с другом.

Каждый фрагмент вводится номером и указанием источника, например: Fr.1. BLT 1/3. /Lost Story III/ The Coming of Valar and the Building of Valinor, где вначале указывается в сокращенном виде том (см. список сокращений), а потом полностью сказание, входящее в него и содержащее фрагмент. Все тексты от составителя берутся в косые скобки / /; весь прочий текст принадлежит толкиеновскому корпусу. Пометка /Comm./ означает, что нижеследующий текст является комментарием Кристофера Толкиена с возможным включением пересказа или цитат текста Дж.Р.Р.Толкиена, помета /Rend./ означает, что нижеследующий текст является пересказом или изложением рукописи Дж.Р.Р.Толкиена, сделанным Кристофером Толкиеном, с элементами цитат подлинного текста Дж.Р.Р. или без таковых. Помета /Autocomm./ подразумевает попытку Дж.Р.Р.Толкиена понять и интерпретировать неясные ему самому стороны собственного мира; такие автокомментарии (учитывая, к тому же, неоднократные заявления Толкиена о том, что ему самому этот мир не вполне понятен и не особенно подвластен) не могут рассматриваться как "источники" по Арде. Толкиен выступает здесь не как "Толкиен", а как "толкиенист" - автор внешнего и гипотетического комментария к собственному тексту/миру. Тексты без помет (за исключением самоочевидных случаев) являются собственными текстами Дж.Р.Р.Толкиена "источникового" характера.

Особую проблему представляют собой указания страниц. Дело в том, что все толкиеновские тексты издавались неоднократно разными издательствами, как в большом формате, так и "пэйпербэками". Если сам текст Толкиена воспроизводится во всех изданиях совершенно одинаково, то распределение страниц, естественно, различное. Мало того, внутренние постраничные отсылки, содержащиеся в самом толкиеновском тексте, одни издания механически воспроизводят в их первоначальном виде, рассчитанном на пользование "Сильмариллионом" 1977 г. и Унвиновским первоизданием UT и HME в толстых переплетах, а другие пытаются их переправлять, отсылая к изданиям собственной серии и тем создавая безмерную путаницу. Я принял решение всюду, где можно, избегать ссылок на страницы, указывая вместо этого как можно точнее ту или иную часть текста; при крайней же необходимости указывать либо страницы унвиновского большеформатного издания (по умолчанию), либо страницы доступного иного издания (с указанием последнего). Тот, кто работает с любым изданием, легко сможет найти в нем нужную страницу, просто посмотрев по печатному индексу, на каких страницах указанной мной структурной части текста встречается ключевое слово фрагмента. Кроме того, если внутренняя ссылка дается на текст, который уже был приведен мной в качестве одного из фрагментов, я, как правило, привожу, наряду с номером страницы, номер соответствующего фрагмента в настоящем собрании. Вообще, настоящая сводка рассчитана прежде всего на то, чтобы ее и использовали, ссылаясь на номера фрагментов, а не на номера соответствующих страниц по какому бы то ни было изданию.
Чем полезна работа такого типа? Прежде всего тем, что, загрузив ее и применяя простейший контекстный поиск, можно в течение 10 минут получить информацию, которую пришлось бы часами выбирать из печатных изданий (даже при условии, что все они у Вас есть).

В свою очередь, получив ее, можно довольно быстро решить проблемы, трудноразрешимые при обращении к отдельным текстам. Приведу только один пример: вопрос о соотношении "орков" и "гоблинов". Иногда эти термины выступают как совершенно совпадающие по смыслу обозначения орков; иногда - как обозначения двух разных, непересекающихся типов существ; иногда "орки" оказываются разновидностью "гоблинов". Сопоставление всех контекстов позволяет довольно быстро прийти к выводу о том, что

- 1. Самое раннее, еще нейтральное значение термина "гоблин" примерно совпадает со значением термина "фэй" - представители "малого народца", низшего мифологического уровня в целом. В этом смысле даже эльфы-нолдор оказываются "гоблинами", как о том прямо свидетельствует редкое употребление терминов "Gnome" и "goblin" как взаимозаменяемых (см. ниже, Fr.5)!

-2. В более узком и основном смысле первоначально гоблинами называлась всякая мелкая и средняя "нечисть" (точный перевод английского слова "гоблины" на русский язык) на службе Мелькора. Критерием выделения этой группы были относительно небольшие силы и размеры. Орки "сформировались" достаточно независимо от этих "гоблинов" и были крупнее и сильнее их, так что первоначально их строго различали.

- 2 > 3. С другой стороны, орки были ненамного крупнее и сильнее, и достаточно походили на гоблинов с виду, чтобы при смешанных и совместных действиях восприниматься как их часть/часть некоего единства; возможно, они смешивались и физически и имели какие-то общие корни (например, в рамках общности "гоблинов" в первом, самом широком и нейтральном смысле слова). Тем самым орки стали восприниматься как часть/разновидность мелкоровых гоблинов (3).

- 3 > 4. При этом, поскольку они были все-таки самыми сильными и, возможно, самыми многочисленными из "гоблинов" в этом новом, третьем смысле слова, они стали восприниматься еще и как главная их часть, "гоблины" par excellence (4). Тем самым термин "гоблин" начинает применяться как простое обозначение "орка".

- 4 > 5. Впоследствии все прочие "гоблины" отошли в тень(не то вымерли, не то смешались с орками, не то вышли из всех конфликтов и так затаились, что больше их никакие источники не упоминают - во всяком случае, после Первой эпохи они полностью исчезают из текстов), и единственными "гоблинами" на виду источников остались "орки". Термин "гоблин" становится абсолютным синонимом к термину "орк" (5).

Заметим, что одинаковая принадлежность нолдор и орков к "гоблинам" в широком смысле слова (в словоупотреблении людей) согласуется с эльфийским происхождением орков, хотя и не подразумевает его категорически.

Толкиенисты с "историческим уклоном" (а есть и с литературным, и с литведческим, и с этико-философским, и с онтологическим, и с гносеологическим, и с географическим, и с антропологическим, и с лингвистическим - вот только с чисто естественнонаучным уклоном толкиенистов нет и быть не может, JRRT был гуманитарий и просто не оставил в этой области достаточно пищи для сердца и ума; все рассуждения на тему о возможных нейролингвистических и акустических механизмах речи у говорящих орлов или оптических свойствах палантиров были и останутся очень вымученными) весьма четко делятся на две - правда, пересекающиеся - категории. Одни радуются, когда начинают более цельно и живо представлять себе, что творилось - вернее, могло твориться - на душе у феанорингов, когда они шли громить Гавань Сириона. Это, так сказать, микроисторики от ардоведения. Если выяснится, как соотносятся друг с другом "гоблины", "гонги", "орки", "каукарэльдар", "изначальные фэйри" и "злые фэйри", это их не огорчит и не обрадует. Другие радуются в точности таким вещам (третьи - тем и другим); это макроисторики, и именно для них предназначается данная работа.

В нижеследующий корпус включались фрагменты, помогающие выявить:
место орков среди других живых существ Арды (в эту категорию входят также фрагменты, описывающие иные категории существ, чем-то сходных с орками, и перечни или классификации, где орки упоминаются среди других рас);
место орков в составе сил Тьмы (сюда приходится включать и описания битв, упоминающие разные виды этих сил, и устойчивые формулы типа "орки и балроги");
происхождение и расогенез орков, возможности их скрещивания с другими расами, внешность и вооружение орков;
отношение орков к иным существам, в том числе своим властителям;
сообщества орков, автономные или независимые от власти Мелькора и Саурона;
орки с точки зрения эрувианской теологии и ее производных, как их гипотетически интерпретировал и пытался применить в автокомментариях сам Толкиен.

P.S. Орки "Властелина Колец".
Обычно "Властелин Колец" рассматривается чуть ли не как самый достоверный и подробный источник по облику и поведению различных рас Арды. Этот взгляд, при всей своей распространенности, не выдерживает ни малейшей критики. Что такое "ВК"? В пределах мира Толкиена это - сделанный самим Толкиеном перевод "Красной Книги Западной Марки", а точнее, романа, написанного неизвестными людьми Арнорско-Гондорского королевства на основе этой самой "Красной Книги", которая, в свою очередь, представляла собой компиляцию, основанную на записях Бильбо и Фродо, в течение столетий дополнявшихся и переправлявшихся как хоббитами Шира, так и гондорскими учеными (RFCG, s.v. Red Book of Westmarch). Тем самым настоящих голосов героев Войны Кольца мы в ВК вообще НЕ СЛЫШИМ и слышать не можем. Мыслимо ли, к примеру, чтобы Сэм точно зафиксировал в памяти все реплики Шаграта и Горбага, потом так же точно бы их надиктовал Фродо, тот так же точно их записал, а потом при многосотлетней переработке текста с ними ничего бы не случилось? Итак, все реплики орков (как и все конкретные реплики кого бы то ни было, как и вообще все, кроме сюжетной канвы) - это не стенограмма и не свидетельство очевидца, а "фукидидова речь" - то есть всего лишь реконструкция того, КАК И ЧТО МОГЛИ БЫ ГОВОРИТЬ ОРКИ ПО МНЕНИЮ "светлых" авторов и обработчиков исходных хоббитских записей. Ни подробного описания деталей, ни психологических характеристик, ни записей всех разговоров авторы первоисточника ВК - хоббиты "Братства" - составить и оставить не могли вообще, так что все это было досочинено и унифицировано потом - по существующим в уме авторов конечного ВК моделям. А эти модели предусматривали совершенно четкое отношение к оркам (которых к тому же те, кто писал орочьи диалоги ВК, уже несколько веков как не видели живьем). Портрет орков в ВК, сообщает нам нечто не об орках, а об авторах конечного ВК - о том, какими орков представляли себе эти "светлые" авторы сотни лет спустя. В этой связи весьма характерно, что уже "Хоббит" - текст, гораздо ближе стоящий к своему первоисточнику, то есть записям Бильбо - рисует орков куда более живо и в несколько ином свете, чем "ВК".

P.S.2. Орки на стороне Последнего Союза?
Иногда это постулируют на основании, казалось бы, бесспорного пассажа из "Сильмариллиона", трактат "О Кольцах Власти и Третьей Эпохе": /Во время войны Последнего Союза/ All living things were divided in that day, and some of every kind, even of beasts and birds, were found in either host, save the Elves only. They alone were undivided and followed Gil-galad. Казалось бы, отсюда следует, что во время Войны Последнего Союза разделились и орки; однако в письмах и эссе Толкиена разъяснения на эту тему выдержаны в том духе, что орки от начала и до конца служат Злу (Fr.170, Fr.252, Fr.260). Разгадка проста. В процитированном отрывке речь идет о позиции living things, "живых существ". Между тем в толкиеновском корпусе присутствует два несовместимых взгляда на орков по этому вопросу: по одному, это действительно живые существа (так, например, прямо в Fr.194, где орки причислены именно к living things), по другому - нечто вроде биороботов, псевдожизнь, созданная Мелькором, который настоящей жизни творить в принципе не мог (Fr. 26, 76, 103 и др.). Повествование "О Кольцах Власти..." (в отличие от других частей совершенно компилятивного итогового "Сильмариллиона", которые, к слову сказать, в вопросе о происхождении орков несогласны и друг с другом) исходит, несомненно, из второй концепции (чему есть и другие доказательства), и их "living things" просто не относится к оркам. Ср. об этом прямо: If any Orcs surrendered and asked for mercy, they must be granted it, even at a cost.** [**footnote to the text: Few Orcs ever did so in the Elder Days, and at no time would any Orc treat with any Elf], Fr.170, Orcs IIIa. Эта фраза полностью исключает участие орков в Последнем Союзе с эльфами. - Сравнительно недавно было высказано предположение, что орки все же имеются в виду в рассматриваемом пассаже в числе "живых существ", и что разделение распространяется и на них. Объяснять это, согласно автору указанного предположения, можно тем, что какая-то группа (группы) орков, не заключая, разумеется, союза с эльфами, могли выступать в союзе с определенным сообществом дварфов или людей (такие союзы и в самом деле зарегистрированы в источниках), а те, в свою очередь, по сугубо военно-политическим причинам могли, даже не блокируясь с Последним Союзом, а на свой страх и риск, вне какого-либо противостояния с Тьмой как целым, воевать с каким-то отрядом, принадлежащим к коалиции Саурона. Кроме того, орки могли воевать друг с другом, и вполне могло быть так, что одна из сталкивающихся групп орков входила в силы Саурона, а другая была самостоятельна и жила на свой страх и риск. В приведенных выше ситуациях получилось бы, что какие-то орки "объективно" выступали против сил Саурона, что, по мысли авторов рассматриваемого предположения, и могло бы дать нашему источнику право распространять представление о "разделившихся" во время Войны Последнего Союза существах и на орков. Согласиться с этим нельзя, так как процитированное выше место трактата "О Кольцах Власти и Третьей Эпохе" говорит не просто об "объективном" распределении сил, а о таком разделении каждой разновидности "живых существ" (кроме эльфов), при котором часть из них обнаруживалась в "каждом (из двух противоборствовавших) воинств" (host). Между тем ясно, что орки не могли присутствовать в "воинстве" (host) Последнего Союза (см. выше), а если какая-то группа орков и действовала против каких-то сил Саурона на свой страх и риск, не входя при этом в Воинство Последнего Союза, то этот факт в любом случае не учитывался бы и не покрывался рассматриваемой фразой трактата "О Кольцах Власти…": последний учитывает только те случаи, когда одни представители одного и того же вида "living things" служили в одном из hosts (Гил-Галада - Элендила или Саурона), а другие - в другом. Остается считать, что составители трактата "О Кольцах власти" не числили орков среди "living things".

PS 3. Грудные орчата на воспитании у эльфов?
Дм. Виноходов любезно сообщил нам следующее: "Листая старые подшивки эхо-конференции SU.TOLKIEN, я обнаружил в одном из посланий Андрея Ленского (ноябрь 1995 г.) цитату на английском языке с чрезвычайно интересной информацией. В письме было сказано, что цитата эта из письма Толкина, однако в сборнике писем я этого фрагмента не нашел, более того, сам Андрей уже не помнит, откуда он эту цитату взял. Никто из тех, к кому я обращался, не смог назвать источник цитаты. Были высказаны лишь предположения, что это цитата из какого-то руководства по играм. /.../ Вот эта цитата:

"...Female orcs are similar to males, and they often go to war with orc bands. Because they are shorter and thinner, most of them are snaga. Neither human nor orc from different tribe can distinguish them. Some of them carry children in backpacks. When orc with child is slain, other orcs kill child.
...
Littles [маленькие орчата, мать которых убили в бою - A/ндрей/ L/енский/] were often given to elves, and became elves themselves. But they have instinctive hatred to orcs, and elves could do nothing with it".

Огромное количество писем Толкиена в сборнике его писем не опубликовано, но в разные времена публиковались фрагментами в газетных и журнальных статях, комментаторами и в специальных журналах. Просмотреть все это и проверить таким образом, толкиеновская ли это цитата - совершенно невозможно. К.Кинн, стоявшая у истоков обсуждения этой цитаты еще в начале 1990-х, указала нам, что это отрывок из англоязычного FAQ или из архивов англоязычной же конференции alt.tolkien конца 80-х - начала 90-х гг., причем присутствовала ли ссылка на "письмо Толкиена" там с самого начала и была ли она достоверна, неизвестно; таким образом, цитата может принадлежать и фэнам, и ролевикам. По экспертной оценке К.Кинн и Эли Бар-Яалома (Хатуля) текст не толкиеновский, и существует решающий аргумент в пользу такой оценки: в тексте стоит Because they (орчанки) are shorter and thinner, most of them are snaga. "Так как оркские самки ниже и тоньше самцов, большинство из них - снаги". Здесь "снага" - это экстерьерная категория орков, "особи определенного (меньшего) роста и массивности". Так мог бы понять Толкиена читатель при беглом восприятии его текста, но так никогда бы написал сам Толкиен: у него "снаги" - это определенные племена/породы (breeds) орков, характеризующиеся более низким ростом и меньшей массивностью - племена или породы, а не особи ( Fr.192)! Толкиен мог бы написать "большинство оркских самок - снаги, ибо они низки ростом и тонки" не с большей вероятностью, чем "большинство самок павлина - домашние куры, ибо не имеют разноцветных хвостов". Таким образом, цитата фэнская, а не толкиеновская, и мы не помещаем ее в корпус. (Задним числом можно найти и еще одно доказательство: если бы Толкиен считал эльфов столь благостными, он отразил бы это не раз и не два в самых разных текстах и разговорах /и Кристофер не преминул бы это упомянуть/, а не оставил бы столь ярко рисующую благородство эльфов черту для одноразового упоминания в неидентифицированном и не использованном его публикаторами письме)

Список сокращений.

LotR The Lord of the Rings
UT Unfinished Tales of Numenor and of Middle-earth
BLT1 The Book of Lost Tales. Part I
BLT2 The Book of Lost Tales. Part II
LB The Lays of Beleriand
ShME The Shaping of Middle-earth
LsR The Lost Road and Other Writings
RSh The Return of the Shadow
TI The Treason of Isengard
WR The War of the Ring
SD Sauron Defeated
MR Morgoth's Ring
WJ The War of the Jewels
PM The Peoples of Middle-earth
Letters Letters of J.R.R. Tolkien
HME History of the Middle-Earth
ATB The Adventures of Tom Bombadil
RFCG Robert Foster. The Complete Guide to Middle-Earth. @ R.Foster 1971, 1978.



Краткий глоссарий названий (полных и в виде основ) различных видов живых существ Арды для контекстного поиска в Базе Данных.
fay, fairi, gong, orc, ork, goblin, beast, Incarnate, kaukareldar, spirit, Vala, Maia, Valarindi, Vanimor, Uvanimor, Elda, balrog, Quendi, Avari, troll, Dwar (f, ves, fes)


ТЕМАТИЧЕСКИЙ ИНДЕКС ФРАГМЕНТОВ ПО НОМЕРАМ

Существа Арды и описывающая их терминология:

"валар" и производные термины ("великие валар", просто "валар", "вали", "дети/сыны валар", "валаринди") 1, 41d, 41g, 41g-1, 41i, 41j, 41m, 41o-bb, 75, 87a-b, 88a, 88c, 168 (esp.168 not.4), 189, 256; см. тж. майар и "духи" (spirits)

"духи" (spirits), "меньшие духи" (lesser spirits), "злые духи" (evil spirits), включая злых майар 4a, 41i, 41j-l, 41n-aa, 41dd, 94, 146, 160suppl.a-d, 161, 163, 167-170, 192, 228b-e, 250, 252; cf.28, 139; ср. тж. 172, 228g о духах веревольфов

sprites 41g-2, 41g-5, 41g-7, 41i, 41ff1

майар (включая умайар) 41g-1, 41i, 41r, 41z, 160suppl.a-d, 163, 168 (esp.168 not.4), 170, 171, 192, 228b-c; см. тж. балроги и "духи"; ср. 172, 228g о духах веревольфов

"призраки" (ghosts) 4a, 183, 228b

"мороки" (phantoms, отличны от spirits, 170) 53, 61, 169, 170, 192

"злые/темные виды" (dark/evil shapes, fell beings, evil things) 3, 160, 160suppl.c-d, 161, 170, 172, 192, 228d-e, 228g, 228k; ср. тж. 172, 228g о веревольфах.

силы (досл. "твари", по смыслу - создания и/или рабы) Тьмы (creatures, things, beings; тж. могут в переносном смысле называться folk, men и children Мелькора, хотя бы реально никаких "людей" и тем более "детей" в составе соответствующих сил не было) 3, 18, 32, 42, 55, 91a, 93, 94, 100b, 102, 111a, 115a-b, 145b, 145d, 158, 160, 160suppl.b-d, 163, 166-170, 172, 189 (author's note 7), 190, 195b, 204, 215, 222a, 226, 228a, 228d, 228f, 228g, 228k-m, 229, 239, 270, 296, 307

уванимор 1, 2, 3, 22, 38, 40t

(злые) "демоны" (слово и объект: "демоны"=Балроги, cр. 57-58, 64, 68, 80a-b, и, возможно, другие демоны) 6, 29, 40, 41bb-cc, 57, 58, 64, 68, 69, 76, 80, 80b, 92-94, 102, 103, 109, 159, 160suppl.c-d, 161-164, 168, 169, 192, 220, 228b, 228d, 228h, 228k, 246, 247, 249, 250
балроги (валараукар) 28, 40, 67, 75, 76, 82, 87, 102, 103b, 109, 110, 160suppl.c-d, 161, 163, 166, 168, 170, 192, 228b, 228d, 228j, 246, 247, 250; см. тж. орки и балроги

нимри 4, 41v, cf.190

фэйри (включая эльфов как "фэйри") 2, 3, 11, 41 (a-e, g, g2-g6, h-k, n-s, u-w, z-aa, ee), 59

"злые фэйри" 2, 15, 41f, 41h, 41ff, cf.41l, 41n.

каукарэльдар 4, "ложные эльдар" 4а, "ложные фэйри" 4.

орки - passim

гоблины ("нечисть"): гоблины как синоним "орков" passim, esp.4, 6, 15, 24, 25, 29, 40, 41ee-1, 47, 48, 50, 51, 68, 109, 110, 111a, 116a-b, 121/Nota bene/, 125, 159, 220, 250, 251; гоблины как нечто отличное от орков, "гоблины и орки" 7, 8, 11, 14, 36, 52, 103b, 114a-b, 120a /Not.35/, 195a, cf.127; орки как разновидность гоблинов ("гоблины" как родовое понятие, "орки" - как соответствующее видовое) 26, 29, 58, 76, 103a, 120a /esp.Not.35/, 121, 127, cf.251; "гоблины и другие малые создания" 195b; "гоблины" в значении, близком к "фэй", и включающем эльфов-нолдор 5, 26, 195b; духи гоблинов в телах троллей 139; др.4a, 29; хобгоблины 313d

гонги 4, 22, 23, 39

wolfriders ("наездники на волках" - орки, и, возможно, кто-то помимо них) орки 14, 82с-d, 219, 316a; кто-то помимо орков 272 (возможно, тж. 42, 55).

"чудовища" (monsters) 1, 6, 28, 30, 39, 41t, 93, 102, 160suppl.c-d, 163, 228a, 228d, 243

великаны (giants) 1, 115a

огры 1, 43, 56

bogey 112, 132, 150, 192

звери (Тьмы) (beasts) 15, 20, 41dd, 45, 47, 65, 67, 82c, 92, 99, 103a, 113, 160, 162a, 165, 168, 172, 179, 187, 195 k (Trolls), 198c, 228a, 228h, 228k, 228m, 245, 249, 294

Происхождение орков и их скрещивание с другими расами.

происхождение, первое появление и природа орков; орки как твари Моргота; эльфийское происхождение орков 2, 3, 26, 28, 34, 68, 69, 76, 77, 89, 90a-b, 92, 95, 96, 102, 103, 105, 157, 161-164, 167-172, 182, 228е, 228g, 250a-b, 252, 276, превращение эльфов и людей в орков 248

оркская кровь у эльфа 27

орки и люди: человеческая кровь в орках 170, полуорки 145, 170, 218, 219, 221, родство орков и друаданов 220, сf.207, 294

орки как животные; кровь животных в орках 168

орки и тролли 121, 139, 195e, 195i-k

орки и хоббиты 41ee-1, 111, 148, 275, 276, 287

представления о существах, родственных или подобных оркам ("орк-кин" и др.) 111, 148, 212, 275 (?), 287, 318

Воспроизводство орков
половое размножение орков 161, 228e; различное потомство от орчанок и мужчин и от орков и женщин ("орколюди" и "человекоорки") 145b, 170; ; дети, "маленькие орки", "сыновья орков" и подростки орков 27b, 151, 275, малыш-орчонок 311с,c-1.

Орки в коллективах. Взаимоотношения друг с другом, союзниками и правителями - 20, 21, 81, 83, 98, 204, 290, 299, 308, 310, 311b, 313a, 315
в том числе:
орки и балроги 13, 27b, 29, 30, 49, 54, 63, 65, 66, 68-70, 73, 74, 77, 78, 80b, 82a, 84a-b, 85, 86, 89, 90a-b, 91a-b, 92, 95, 96, 99, 103a-b, 107, 228j, 232, 241
орки и волки 10, 11, 12, 14, 17, 31, 40dd, 42, 51, 55, 62, 82d, 97, 112a-b, 123a-b, 143, 145a, 145c, 175, 178, 203, 218, 219, 225, 233, 238, 284, 312a, 316a-b, cf.197, 312b
орки и коты Моргота 12а
орки и дварфы, орки в союзе с дварфами 2, 3, 22, 23, 106, 310
орки и хоббиты 41ee-1
орки в союзе с людьми 145, 196, 200, 210а, 222, 226, 240, 280, 292, 297
позитивное отношение людей к оркам 100с, 231, 209, 258

Внешность, быт, вооружение, "материальная культура" 11a, 11c, 15, 16, 16a, 19, 27а, 48, 50, 58, 63, 104, 128, 130, 131, 134-137, 144, 145, 149, 150, 151, 154-156, 173, 174, 200, 207, 210а, 211suppl., 217, 219, 225, 228h-i, 230, 238, 242, 255, 262, 263, 265, 266, 268-271, 274, 278-281, 285, 289-291, 293-295, 299-303, 305, 306, 310, 311e-d, 312, 313, 316-318

Речь, поведение, песни, "духовная культура" 11c, 15, 16a, 27b, 29, 81, 108, 138, 147, 150, 153, 156, 180, 184, 185, 186, 198, 208, 210-214, 217, 219, 225, 226, 237, 253, 263, 267, 273, 274, 278, 282, 285, 290, 299, 300, 304, 305, 307, 310, 311е, 312е, 314
в том числе песни 79b, 310
пьяный гоблин 317
пригодный для услуг/услужливый орк 319

Язык(и) и письмо орков 11b, 13, 79a-c, 100, 110, 141, 155, 156, 193, 195, 211suppl., 227, 250, 264 ср. приложение о Черной Речи.

Имена орков 29, 58, 124, 138, 150, 154

Этноним орков 5, 6, 33, 40, 109, 110, 152, 159, 192, 250, 294, cf.247

Разновидности орков 121, 127, 135, 157, 192, 195, 201, 219, 223, 224, 226, 266, 270, 274, 282, 304, 305, 313d, cf.318

Обращение эрувианцев с орками, cравнение орков и людей, природа, место и конечная судьба орков в эрувианской теологии; феа орков = орки как incarnates 75, 88a-c, 139, 158, 160, 161, 162a, 165-170, 187, 188, 195k, 200 (entry '3019'), 201, 209, 210а, 211, 212, 222b, 228e, 249, 250b, 252, 254, 257, 260, 275, 283, 288, 294, 313с, 314, 319, cf.163, 211suppl.

понятие incarnate ("воплощенный /дух феа/") применительно к оркам и др.: 163,167 /esp. 167. Note 10/, 168, 170, 188, 189, 191, 250b, 253, spirit у гоблинов 139


F R A G M E N T A

Fr.1
/HME I. P.75/
BLT 1/3. /Lost Story III/ The Coming of Valar and the Building of Valinor
/.../ there are none of Valar or Uvanimor (who are monsters, giants, and ogres) that do not fear the sinews of his /Tulkas'/ arm and the buffet of his iron-clad fist, when he has cause for wrath.

Fr.2
/HME I. P.236/
BLT 1/10. /Lost Story X/ Gilfanon's Tale: The Travail of the Noldoli and the Coming of Mankind.
Earlier Outlines (A, B) on awakening of Men /Rend./
/After awakening of Men by Elvenrulers Tuvo and Nuin/. At this point in the story the agents of Melko appear, the Uvanimor, 'bred in the earth' by him (Uvanimor, 'who are monsters, giants, and ogres', have been mentioned in an earlier tale, /HME 1/ pp. 75-6 /= Fr.1/); and Tuvo protected Men and Elves from them and from 'evil fays'. A makes mention of Orcs besides.
A servant of Melko named 'Fukil or Fangli' entered the world, and coming among Men perverted them, so that they fell treacherously upon the Ilkorins; there followed the Battle of Palisor, in which the people of Ermon fought beside Nuin. According to A 'the fays and those Men that aided them were defeated', but B calls it an 'undecided battle', and the Men corrupted by Fangli fled away and became 'wild and savage tribes', worshipping Fangli and Melko. Thereafter (in A only) Palisor was possessed by 'Fangli and his hosts of Nauglath (or Dwarves)'. (In the early writings the Dwarves are always portrayed as an evil people.) From this outline it is seen that the corruption of certain Men in the beginning of their days by the agency of Melko was a feature of the earliest phase of the mythology; but of all the story here sketched there is no more than a hint or suggestion, at most, in The Silmarillion (p. 141): ' "A darkness lies behind us," Beor said; "and we have turned our backs upon it, and we do not desire to return thither even in thought."

Fr.3
/HME I. P.236-237/
BLT 1/10. /Lost Story X/ Gilfanon's Tale: The Travail of the Noldoli and the Coming of Mankind.
Later Outline (C+D) on awakening of Men /Rend.
/.../ Here it is told at the beginning of the narrative that Melko's Uvanimor had escaped when the Gods broke the Fortress of the North, and were wandering in the forests; Fankil servant of Melko dwelt uncaptured in the world. (Fankil = Fangli /Fukil of A and B. In C he is called 'child of Melko'. Fankil has been mentioned at an earlier point in D, when at the time of the Awakening of the Elves 'Fankil and many dark shapes escaped into the world'; see /HME1/ p. 107, note 3) /.../ /After having been awakened by Elves/ Men dwelt in the centre of the world and spread thence in all directions; and a very great age passed. /Then/ Fankil with the Dwarves and Goblins went among Men, and bred estrangement between them and the Elves; and many Men aided the Dwarves. The folk of Ermon alone stood by the fairies in the first war of Goblins and Elves (Goblins is here an emendation from Dwarves, and that from Men), which is called the War of Palisor. Nuin died at the hands of the Goblins through the treachery of Men. Many kindreds of Men were driven to the eastern deserts and the southern forests, whence came dark and savage peoples.

Fr.4
/HME I. P.239 + P.245, note 10/
BLT 1/10. /Lost Story X/ Gilfanon's Tale: The Travail of the Noldoli and the Coming of Mankind.
Earlier Outlines (A, B) on the history of exiled Gnomes /Noldor/ /Rend./
/.../ the story concludes with 'the Building of Gondolin' and 'the estrangement of Men and Elves in Hisilome, owing to the Battle of Unnumbered Tears': Melko fostered distrust and kept them spying on each other, so that they should not combine against him; and he fashioned the false-fairies or Kaukareldar in their likeness, and these deceived and betrayed Men10.
/.../ Note 10. The text has here the bracketed word '(Gongs)'. This might be thought to be a name for the Kaukareldar or 'false-fairies', but in the Gnomish word-list Gong is defined as 'one of a tribe of the Orcs, a goblin'. /NB. Cf. Gong, Orc and Gorgun, druadainian name for Orcs. Cf. Fr. 4a on false Eldar /.

Fr.4a
SD (HME 9)/3:(v). The theory of the work.
/Numenorean Mannish Tradition/
There were 'Enkeladim' /Elves/ once on earth, but that was not their name in this world: it was Eledai (in Numenorean Eldar).(1) After the First Fall they tried to befriend Men, and teach them to love the Earth and all things that grow in it. But evil also was ever at work. There were false Eldar: counterfeits and deceits made by evil, ghosts and goblins, but not always evil to look at. They terrified Men, or else deceived and betrayed them, and hence arose the fear of Men for all the spirits of the Earth.
Men 'awoke' first in the midst of the Great Middle Earth (Europe and Asia), and Asia was first thinly inhabited, before the Dark Ages of great cold. Even before that time Men had spread westward (and eastward) as far as the shores of the Sea. The [Enkeladim >] Eledai withdrew into waste places or retreated westward.(2) The Men who journeyed westward were in general those who remained in closest touch with the true Eledai, and for the most part they were drawn west by the rumour of a land in or beyond the Western Sea which was beautiful, and was the home of the Eledai where all things were fair and ordered to beauty. This was so for there was a great island in the Ocean where the Eledai had first 'awakened' when the world was made: that is complete and ready for their operations. Thus it is that the more beautiful legends (containing truths) arose, of oreads, dryads, and nymphs; and of the Ljos-alfar.(3)
NOTES. 1. The name Eledai occurs in Drowning of Anadune (and subsequent texts) §5 / Fr.41v/, as the name of the Nimri (Nimir) in their own language./.../ 2. Sketch I has here: 'The Great Central Land, Europe and Asia, was first inhabited. Men awoke in Mesopotamia. Their fates as they spread were very various. But the Enkeladim withdrew ever west.' 3. Ljos-alfar: Old Norse, 'Light-elves', mentioned in the 'Prose Edda' of Snorri Sturluson.

Fr.5
/HME I. P.262/
BLT1/Appendix. Names in the Lost Tales 1
Noldoli - /=Gnomes, "The Wise Ones" in translations to european languages; = Noldor/ The root NOL 'know' in QL has derivatives Noldo 'Gnome' and Noldorinwa adjective, Noldomar 'Gnomeland', and Noldorin 'who dwelt awhile in Noldomar and brought the Gnomes back to Inwenore'. It seems that Noldomar means the Great Lands. But it is very curious that in these entries, which are among the earliest, 'Gnome' is an emendation of 'Goblin'; cf. the poem Goblin Feet (1915), and its Old English title Cumap pa Nihtielfas (/HME 1/ p. 24). In Gnomish 'Gnome' is Golda ('i.e. wise one'); Goldothrim 'the people of the Gnomes', Goldogrin their tongue, Goldobar, Goldomar 'Gnomeland'. /.../

Fr.6
/HME I. P.264/
BLT1/Appendix. Names in the Lost Tales 1
Orc - Quenya Lexicon ork (orq-) 'monster, demon '. Gnomish /Noldorin/ Lexicon orc 'goblin', plural arcin, orchoth (hoth 'folk, people' /.../).

Fr.7
/HME 2. P.14/
BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel.
/Beren's adventures/ Many poisonous snakes were in those places and wolves roamed about, and more fearsome still were the wandering bands of the goblins and the Orcs -- foul broodlings of Melko who fared abroad doing his evil work, snaring and capturing beasts, and Men, and Elves, and dragging them to their lord.


Fr.8
/HME 2. P.31/
BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel.
Nigh were the sad chambers /of Angamandi/ where the thrall-Noldoli laboured bitterly under the Orcs and goblins of the hills.

Fr.9
/HME 2. P.34/
BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel.
...they /Beren and Tinuviel/ were seen by none, albeit Melko had raised all his Orcs of terror against them.

Fr.10
/HME 2. P.35/
BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel.
..."for," said he /Huan the Dog/, "a great company of the Orcs are drawing swiftly hither, and wolves are their trackers and their scouts."

Fr.11
/HME 2. P.35/
BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel.
...once more did Huan lead them /Beren and Tinuviel/ by winding ways, and dared not yet straightly to bring them to the land of the woodland fairies. So cunning however was his leading that at last after many days the chase fell far away, and no longer did they see or hear anything of the bands of Orcs; no goblins waylaid them nor did the howling of any evil wolves come upon the airs at night.

Fr.11a
/HME 2. P.38/
BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel.
Mablung the heavy-handed, chief of the king's thanes, leaped up and grasped a spear -- a mighty weapon captured in battle with the distant Orcs.

Fr.11b
/HME 2. P.45/
BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel.
And long days of friendship had he /Egnor, Beren's father, here noldo/ known with the folk of Men (as had Beren himself thereafter as brother in arms to Urin the Steadfast); but in those days the Orcs named him /Egnor/ Rog the Fleet, and the name of Egnor was nought to Melko.

Fr.11c
/HME 2. P.45/
BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel.
Evil thereafter were his /Beren's, when he was captured/ days in the power of Tiberth /=Tevildo the Cat of Morgoth/; for a scullion they made him, and unending labour he had in the hewing of wood and drawing of water, and in the menial services of that noisome abode. Often too was hetormented by the cats and other evil beasts of their company, and when, as happened at whiles, there was an Orc-feast in those halls, he would ofttimes be set to the roasting of birds and other meats upon spits before the mighty fires in Melko's dungeons, until he swooned for the overwhelming heat; yet he knew himself fortunate beyond all hope in being yet alive among those cruel foes of Gods and Elves.

Fr.12
/HME 2. P.44/
BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel.
Many a combat and an escape had he /Beren/ in those days, and he slew therein more than once both wolf and the Orc that rode thereon with nought but an ashen club that he bore.

Fr.12a
/HME 2. P.47/
BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel.
So swift was Huan that on a time he had fallen upon Tiberth /the Cat of Morgoth/ as he hunted alone in the woods, and pursuing him had overtaken him and nigh rent the fur of his neck from him ere he was rescued by a host of Orcs that heard his cries.


Fr.13
/HME 2. P.67/
BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel /Comm. . Miscellaneous Matters./
(i) Morgoth. Beren addresses Melko as 'most mighty Belcha Morgoth', which are said to be his names among the Gnomes (/HME 2/ p. 44). In the Gnomish dictionary Belcha is-given as the Gnomish form corresponding to Melko (see /HME/ I. 260), but Morgoth is not found in it: indeed this is the first and only appearance of the name in the Lost Tales. The element goth is given in the Gnomish dictionary with the meaning 'war, strife'; but if Morgoth meant at this period 'Black Strife' it is perhaps strange that Beren should use it in a flattering speech. A name-list made in the 1930-s explains Morgoth as 'formed from his Orc-name Goth "Lord or Master" with mor "dark or black" prefixed', but it seems very doubtful that this etymology is valid for the earlier period. This name-list explains Gothmog 'Captain of Balrogs' as containing the same Orc-element ('Voice of Goth (Morgoth)'); but in the name-list to the tale of The Fall Condolin (p. 216) the name Gothmog is said to mean 'Strife-and-hatred' (mog- 'detest, hate' appears in the Gnomish dictionary), which supports the interpretation of Morgoth in the present tale as 'Black Strife'.

Fr.14
/HME 2. P.67/
BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel /Comm. . Miscellaneous Matters./
(ii) Orcs.... Despite the reference to 'the wandering bands of the goblins and the Orcs' (/HME 2/ p. 14, retained in the typescript version), the terms are certainly synonymous in the Tale of Turambar /BLT 2/2 /. The Orcs are described in the present tale (ibid.) as 'foul broodlings of Melko'. In the second version (/HME 2/ p. 44) wolf-rider Orcs appear.

Fr.15
/HME 2. P.76-78/
BLT2/2 Lost Story 2-2. Turambar and the Foaloke /Glaurung, Glorund/
/HME 2. P.76/ Beleg the Elf and Turin the Man, which are not now told or remembered but which once were sung in many a place. With beast and with goblin they warred and fared at times into far places unknown to the Elves, and the fame of the hidden hunters of the marches began to be heard among Orcs and Elves. /...HME 2. P.77/ Nonetheless was Turin dragged now many an evil league in sore distress, a captive of the pitiless Orcs, and they made slow journeying, for they followed ever the line of dark hills toward those regions where they rise high and gloomy and their heads are shrouded in black vapours. There are they called Angorodin or the Iron Mountains, for beneath the roots of their northernmost fastnesses lies Angband, the Hells of Iron, most grievous of all abodes -- and thither were they now making laden with booty and with evil deeds./.../ Orcs and dragons and evil fays were loosed /by Melko/ against them /wild Elves and free Noldoli of Hithlum and the Lands Beyond/ and their lives were full of sorrow and travail. /.../ Now was it that it came into the heart of Beleg the hunter of the Elves to seek after Turin so soon as his own hurts were healed. This being done in no great number of days, for he had a skill of healing, he made all speed after the band of Orcs, and he had need of all his craft as tracker to follow that trail, for a band of the goblins of Melko go cunningly and very light. /...P.78/ Thus did it fall out that Belegbecame lost and benighted in a dark and perilous region so thick with pines of giant growth that none but the goblins might find a track, having eyes that pierced the deepest gloom, yet were many even of these lost long time in those regions; and they were called by the Noldoli Taurfuin, the Forest of Night.

/NB. В целом на протяжении всего текста BLT 2/2 термины Orcs (c большой буквы) и goblins (с маленькой) употребляются бессистемно, исключительно как взаимозаменяемые синонимы для обозначения одних и тех же существ, с преобладанием первого термина/

Fr.16
/HME 2. P.79/
BLT2/2 Lost Story 2-2. Turambar and the Foaloke /Glaurung, Glorund/
The Orcs have ears of cats. /.../ ...Now it happened that in their journeying their paths crossed that of the Orcs who now were renewing their march, but in a direction other than that they had for long pursued, for now fearing the escape of their prisoner they made for a place where they knew the trees were thinner and a track ran for many a league easy to pursue; wherefore that evening, or ever they came to the spot that Flinding sought, they heard a shouting and a rough singing that was afar in the woods but drawing near; nor did they hide too soon ere the whole of that Orc-band passed nigh to them, and some of the captains were mounted upon small horses, and to one of these was Turin tied by the wrists so that he must trot or be dragged cruelly.

Fr.16a
/HME 2. P.80/
BLT2/2 Lost Story 2-2. Turambar and the Foaloke /Glaurung, Glorund/
Turin awoke in fear. Now seeing a form bend over him in the gloom sword in hand and feeling the smart of his foot he thought it was one of the Orcs come to slay him or to torment him -- and this they did often, cutting him with knives or hurting him with spears; but now Turin feeling his hand free leapt up and flung all his weight suddenly upon Beleg /.../ Then Turin leapt back and shouting out curses upon the goblins bid them come and slay him or taste of his sword, for he fancied himself in the midst of their camp, and thought not of flight but only of selling his life dear.

Fr.17
/HME 2. P.84/
BLT2/2 Lost Story 2-2. Turambar and the Foaloke /Glaurung, Glorund/
...but behold, an army of Orcs descended upon them /Turin and his host/, and wolves, and Orcs mounted upon wolves; and a great worm was with them whose scales were polished bronze and whose breath was a mingled fire and smoke, and his name was Glorund.

Fr.18
/HME 2. P.88, 92/
BLT2/2 Lost Story 2-2. Turambar and the Foaloke /Glaurung, Glorund/
...those regions of Orcs and other fierce folk of Melko /.../ ...those Orc-bands and other fierce beings of Melko's...

Fr.19
/HME 2. P.99/
BLT2/2 Lost Story 2-2. Turambar and the Foaloke /Glaurung, Glorund/
Now on a time in an opening in the wood she /Nienori/ descried a campment as it were of Men, and creeping nigh by reason of hunger to espy it she saw that they were creatures of a squat and unlovely stature that dwelt there, and most evil faces had they, and their voices and their laughter was as the clash of stone and metal. Armed they were with curved swords and bows of horn, and she was possessed with fear as she looked upon them, although she knew not that they were Orcs, for never had she seen those evil ones before. Now did she turn and flee, but was espied, and one let fly a shaft at her that quivered suddenly in a tree beside her as she ran, and others seeing that it was a woman young and fair gave chase whooping and calling hideously.

Fr.20
a. BLT2/2 Lost Story 2-2. Turambar and the Foaloke /Glaurung, Glorund/. /HME 2. P.103/.
But behold, in those days the Foaloke waxed fat, and having many bands of Noldoli and of Orcs subject to him he thought to extend his dominion far and wide. Indeed in many places in those days these beasts of Melko's did in like manner, setting up kingdoms of terror of their own that flourished beneath the evil mantle of Melko's lordship.

Fr.21
/HME 2. P.131/
BLT2/2 Lost Story 2-2. Turambar and the Foaloke /Glaurung, Glorund/. /Comm./
(ix) The slaying of Clorund (pp. 103 -- 8). In this section I follow the narrative of the tale as far as Turin's swoon when the dying dragon opened his eyes and looked at him. Here the later story runs very close to the old, but there are many interesting differences. In the tale Glorund is said to have had bands of both Orcs and Noldoli subject to him / Fr.20/, but only the Orcs remained afterwards; cf. the Narn p. 125: Now the power and malice of Glaurung grew apace, and he waxed fat [cf. 'the Foaloke waxed fat'], and he gathered Orcs to him, and ruled as a dragon-King, and all the realm of Nargothrond that had been was laid under him / Fr.83b/.

Fr.22
/HME 2. P.136/
BLT2/2 Lost Story 2-2. /Comm./ /Rend./ Story of Nauglafring.
Immediately following the rejected narrative there is a short outline headed 'Story of the Nauglafring or the Necklace of the Dwarves', and this also was struck through. Here there is no mention of Urin /Hurin/ at all, but it is told that the Orcs (emended from Gongs, see /HME/ I. 245 note 10 / Fr.4, note/) who guarded the treasury of Glorund went in search of him when he did not come back to the caves, and in their absence Tintoglin (i.e. Tinwelint), learning of Glorund's death, sent Elves to steal thehoard of the Rothwarin (i.e. Rodothlim). The Orcs returning cursed the thieves, and they cursed the gold also. Linwe (i.e. Tinwelint) guarded the gold, and he had a great necklace made by certain Uvanimor (Nautar or Nauglath). (Uvanimor have been defined in an earlier tale as 'monsters, giants, and ogres', see /HME/ I. 75, 236 /Frr.1,2/; Nauglath are Dwarves, /HME/ I. 236). In this Necklace the Silmaril was set; but the curse of the gold was on him, and he defrauded them of part of their reward. The Nauglath plotted, and got aid of Men; Linwe was slain in a raid, and the gold carried away.

Fr.23
/HME 2. P.136/
BLT2/2 Lost Story 2-2. /Comm./ /Rend./ The Necklace of the Dvarves /Cont.of Fr.22/
There follows another rejected outline, headed 'The Necklace of the Dwarves', and this combines features of the preceding outline with features of the rejected ending of Eltas' narrative (pp. 135 -- 6). Here Urin gathers a band of Elves and Men who are wild and fierce, and they go to the caves, which are lightly guarded because the 'Orqui' (i.e. Orcs) are abroad seeking Glorund. They carry off the treasure, and the Orcs returning curse it. Urin casts the treasure before the king and reproaches him (saying that he might have sent a greater company to the caves to secure the treasure, if not to aid Mavwin in her distress); 'Tintoglin would not touch it and bid Urin hold what he had won, but Urin would depart with bitter words'. Urin's men were not willing to leave it, and they sneaked back; there was an affray in the king's halls, and much blood was spilt on the gold. The outline concludes thus: The Gongs sack Linwe's halls and Linwe is slain and the gold is carried far away. Beren Ermabwed falls upon them at a crossing of Sirion and the treasure is cast into the water, and with it the Silmaril of Feanor. The Nauglath that dwell nigh dive after the gold but only one mighty necklace of gold (and that Silmaril is on it) do they find. This becomes a mark of their king.


Fr.24
/HME 2. P.156/
BLT2/3 Lost Story 2-3. The Fall of Gondolin.
...those regions which Melko infesteth with his Goblins, the people of hate.

/NB. В целом на протяжении всего текста BLT 2/3 термины Orcs (c большой буквы) и goblins (с маленькой, исключая Fr.24) употребляются бессистемно, исключительно как взаимозаменяемые синонимы для обозначения одних и тех же существ, с преобладанием первого термина/

Fr.25
/HME 2. P.157/
BLT2/3 Lost Story 2-3. The Fall of Gondolin.
Voronwe became adread, and said: "It is Melko's goblins, the Orcs of the hills."

Fr.26
/HME 2. P.159-160/
BLT2/3 Lost Story 2-3. The Fall of Gondolin.
How it came ever that among Men the Noldoli have been confused with the Orcs who are Melko's goblins, I know not, unless it be that certain of the Noldoli were twisted to the evil of Melko and mingled among these Orcs, for all that race were bred by Melko of the subterranean heats and slime. Their hearts were of granite and their bodies deformed; foul their faces which smiled not, but their laugh that of the clash of metal, and to nothing were they more fain than to aid in the basest of the purposes of Melko. The greatest hatred was between them and the Noldoli, who named them Glamhoth, or folk of dreadful hate.

Fr.27
/HME 2. P.165/
BLT2/3 Lost Story 2-3. The Fall of Gondolin.
Now the sign of Meglin /Maeglin the Noldo/ was a sable Mole, and he was great among quarrymen and a chief of the delvers after ore; and many of these belonged to his house. Less fair was he than most of this goodly folk, swart and of none too kindly mood, so that he won small love, and whispers there were that he had Orc's blood in his veins, but I know not how this could be true.

Fr.27a
/HME 2. P.165-166/
BLT2/3 Lost Story 2-3. The Fall of Gondolin.
He /Melko/ got together a mighty army of spies: sons of the Orcs were there with eyes of yellow and green like cats that could pierce all glooms and see through mist or fog or night; /.../

Fr.27b
BLT2/3 Lost Story 2-3. The Fall of Gondolin.
Now it so chanced that not long after Meglin went to the hills for the getting of ore, and straying in the mountains alone was taken by some of the Orcs prowling there, and they would do him evil and terrible hurt, knowing him to be a man of the Gondothlim.
This was however unknown of Tuor's watchers. But evil came into the heart of Meglin, and he said to his captors: "Know then that I am Meglin son of Eol who had to wife Isfin sister of Turgon king of the Gondothlim." But they said: "What is that to us?" And Meglin answered: "Much is it to you; for if you slay me, be it speedy or slow, ye will lose great tidings concerning the city of Gondolin that your master would rejoice to hear." Then the Orcs stayed their hands, and said they would give him life if the matters he opened to them seemed to merit that; and Meglin told them of all the fashion of that plain and city, of its walls and their height and thickness, and the valour of its gates; of the host of men at arms who now obeyed Turgon he spake, and the countless hoard of weapons gathered for their equipment, of the engines of war and the venomous fires.
Then the Orcs were wroth, and having heard these matters were yet for slaying him there and then as one who impudently enlarged the power of his miserable folk to the mockery of the great might and puissance of Melko; but Meglin catching at a straw said: "Think ye not that ye would rather pleasure your master if ye bore to his feet so noble a captive, that he might hear my tidings of himself and judge of their verity?"
Now this seemed good to the Orcs, and they returned from the mountains about Gondolin to the Hills of Iron and the dark halls of Melko; thither they haled Meglin with them, and now was he in a sore dread. But when he knelt before the black throne of Melko in terror of the grimness of the shapes about him, of the wolves that sat beneath that chair and of the adders that twined about its legs, Melko bade him speak. Then told he those tidings, and Melko hearkening spake very fair to him, that the insolence of his heart in great measure returned. Now the end of this was that Melko aided by the cunning of Meglin devised a plan for the overthrow of Gondolin. For this Meglin's reward was to be a great captaincy among the Orcs - yet Melko purposed not in his heart to fulfil such a promise - but Tuor and Earendel should Melko burn, and Idril be given to Meglin's arms - and such promises was that evil one fain to redeem.Yet as meed of treachery did Melko threaten Meglin with the torment of the Balrogs. Now these were demons with whips of flame and claws of steel by whom he tormented those of the Noldoli who durst withstand him in anything -- and the Eldar have called them Malkarauki. But the rede that Meglin gave to Melko was that not all the host of the Orcs nor the Balrogs in their fierceness might by assault or siege hope ever to overthrow the walls and gates of Gondolin even if they availed to win unto the plain without. Therefore he counselled Melko to devise out of his sorceries a succour for his warriors in their endeavour. From the greatness of his wealth of metals and his powers of fire he bid him make beasts like snakes and dragons of irresistible might that should overcreep the Encircling Hills and lap that plain and its fair city in flame and death.

Fr.28
/HME 2. P.170/
BLT2/3 Lost Story 2-3. The Fall of Gondolin.
Then on a time Melko assembled all his most cunning smiths and sorcerers, and of iron and flame they wrought a host of monsters such as have only at that time been seen and shall not again be till the Great End. Some were all of iron so cunningly linked that they might flow like slow rivers of metal or coil themselves around and above all obstacles before them, and these were filled in their innermost depths with the grimmest of the Orcs with scimitars and spears; others of bronze and copper were given hearts and spirits of blazing fire, and they blasted all that stood before them with the terror of their snorting or trampled whatso escaped the ardour of their breath; yet others were creatures of pure flame that writhed like ropes of molten metal, and they brought to ruin whatever fabric they came nigh, and iron and stone melted before them and became as water, and upon them rode the Balrogs in hundreds; and these were the most dire of all those monsters which Melko devised against Gondolin.

Fr.29
/HME 2. P.176-186/
BLT2/3 Lost Story 2-3. The Fall of Gondolin. /Battle for Gondolin/
/HME 2. P.176/ ...an innumerable host of the Orcs, the goblins of hatred, poured therefrom into the breach; and who shall tell of the gleam of their scimitars or the flash of the broad-bladed spears with which they stabbed? /.../ There the blows of their /Elvish/ great hammers and the dint of their clubs rang to the Encircling Mountains and the Orcs fell like leaves; and those of the Swallow and the Arch poured arrows like the dark rains of autumn upon them, and both Orcs and Gondothlim fell thereunder for the smoke and the confusion. Great was that battle, yet for all their valour the Gondothlim by reason of the might of ever increasing numbers were borne slowly backwards till the goblins held part of the northernmost city. /.../ /HME 2. P.179-180/ Then Gothmog Lord of Balrogs gathered all his demons that were about the city... /...it is desribed later as/ ...an overwhelming force of the Orcs and the Balrogs... /.../ Now therefore Melko's goblins held all the gate /.../ Then on a sudden their music ceased and Ecthelion of the fair voice shouted for the drawing of swords, and before the Orcs might foresee his onslaught the flashing of those pale blades was amongst them. 'Tis said that Ecthelion's folk there slew more of the goblins than fell ever in all the battles of the Eldalie with that race, and that his name is a terror among them to this latest day, and a warcry to the Eldar. /.../ /HME 2. P.181/ /.../ There Tuor slew Othrod a lord of the Orcs cleaving his helm, and Balcmeg he hewed asunder, and Lug he smote with his axe that his limbs were cut from beneath him at the knee, but Ecthelion shore through two captains of the goblins at a sweep and cleft the head of Orcobal their chiefest champion to his teeth; and by reason of the great doughtiness of those two lords they came even unto the Balrogs. /.../ /HME 2. P.183/ But now the men of Melko have assembled their forces, and seven dragons of fire are come with Orcs about them and Balrogs upon them down all the ways from north, east, and west, seeking the Square of the King. .../ /HME 2. P.185/ /In full defeat/ There he /Turgon/ shouted in a voice like a horn blown among the mountains, and all that were gathered beneath the Trees and the foemen in the mists of the square heard him: "Great is the victory of the Noldoli!" And 'tis said that it was then middle night, and that the Orcs yelled in derision. .../ /HME 2. P.186/ Lo! a drake was coiled even on the very steps of the palace and defiled their whiteness; but swarms of the Orcs ransacked within and dragged forth forgotten women and children or slew men that fought alone.

Fr.30
/HME 2. P.189/
BLT2/3 Lost Story 2-3. The Fall of Gondolin.
amidmost of the plain about them loomed afar the hill of Amon Gwareth crowned with flames, where had stood the gleaming city of their home. Fire-drakes are about it and monsters of iron fare in and out of its gates, and great is that sack of the Balrogs and Orcs.

Fr.31
/HME 2. P.190/
BLT2/3 Lost Story 2-3. The Fall of Gondolin.
...a knot of men that fled on foot, and these were pursued by a strange cavalry, for on great wolves rode Orcs, as they thought, brandishing spears.

Fr.32
/HME 2. P.193/
BLT2/3 Lost Story 2-3. The Fall of Gondolin.
Now when the clamour from the pass rose to his great eyrie he /Thorndor the Eagle/ said: "Wherefore are these foul things, these Orcs of the hills, climbed near to my throne; and why do the sons of the Noldoli cry out in the low places for fear of the children of Melko the accursed?"

Fr.33
/HME 2. P.202/
BLT2/3 Lost Story 2-3. The Fall of Gondolin. /Comm./
Orcs. Tuor A and B had Orqui throughout; my father emended this in Tuor B to Orcs, but not consistently, and in the later part of the tale not at all. In one place only (/HME 2/ p. 193, in Thorndor's speech / Fr.32/) both texts have Orcs (also Orc-bands /HME 2/ p. 195). As with the name Tuor/Tur I give throughout the form that was to prevail. At the only occurrence of the singular the word is written with a k in both Tuor A and B ('Ork's blood', /HME 2/ p. 165 / Fr.27/).

Fr.34
/HME 2. P.219/
BLT2/3 Lost Story 2-3. The Fall of Gondolin. /Comm./
(iii) Orcs. There is a noteworthy remark in the tale (/HME 2/ p. 159 / Fr.26/) concerning the origin of the Orcs (or Orqui as they were called in Tuor A, and in Tuor B as first written): 'all that race were bred of the subterranean heats and slime.' There is no trace yet of the later view that 'naught that had life of its own, nor the semblance of life, could ever Melkor make since his rebellion in the Ainulindale before the Beginning', or that the Orcs were derived from enslaved Quendi after the Awakening (The Silmarillion p. 50). Conceivably there is a first hint of this idea of their origin in the words of the tale in the same passage: 'unless it be that certain of,the Noldoli were twisted to the evil of Melko and mingled among these Orcs', although of course this is as it stands quite distinct from the idea that the Orcs were actually bred from Elves. Here also occurs the name Glamhoth of the Orcs, a name that reappears in the later Tuor (pp. 39 and 54 note 18).

Fr.35
/HME 2. P.224/
BLT2/4 Lost Story 2-4. The Nauglafring.
The Nauglath in those days did great traffic with the free Noldoli, and, 'tis said, with the Orcs and soldiers of Melko also.

Fr.36
/HME 2. P.230/
BLT2/4 Lost Story 2-4. The Nauglafring.
Moreover he /Naugladur, Dwarf-king of Nogrod/ gathered about him a great host of the Orcs, and wandering goblins, promising them a good wage, and the pleasure of their Master moreover, and a rich booty at the end; and all these he armed with his own weapons.

Fr.37
/HME 2. P.232, 234, 243/
BLT2/4 Lost Story 2-4. The Nauglafring.
/Defeat of Thingol/ ...behold, a sudden multitude of Orcs and Indrafangs /tribe of Dwarves/ held the bridge, and there was war within the cavernous gates. Then did those Orcs and Dwarves ransack all the chambers seeking for treasure other companies as great and as terrible of the Orcs and Indrafangs fell with death and fire upon all the realm of Tinwelint. /.../ Indeed the tale tells that even as that host of the Orcs were burning all the land of Tinwelint and the Nauglath and the Indrafangin were wending homeward burdened utterly with spoils of gold and precious things /.../ how the hunting party had been surrounded and o'erwhelmed by the Nauglath while the Indrafangs and Orcs fell suddenly with death and fire upon all the realm of Tinwelint.

Fr.38
/HME 2. P.247/
BLT2/4 Lost Story 2-4. The Nauglafring. /Comm./
But however much the chief actors in this tale are 'enspelled' or blindly carrying forward the mysterious dictates of a curse, there is no question but that the Dwarves in the original conception were altogether more ignoble than they afterwards became, more prone to evil to gain their ends, and more exclusively impelled by greed; that Doriath should be laid waste by mercenary Orcs under Dwarvish paymasters (/HME 2/ p. 230 / Fr.36/) was to become incredible and impossible later. It is even said that by the deeds of Naugladur 'have the Dwarves been severed in feud for ever since those days with the Elves, and drawn more nigh in friendship to the kin of Melko' (/HME 2/ p. 230); and in the outlines for Gilfanon's Tale the Nauglath are an evil people, associates of goblins (/HME/ I. P.236- 7). In a rejected outline for the Tale of the Nauglafring (/HME 2/ p. 136 / Fr.22/) the Necklace was made 'by certain Uvanimor (Nautar or Nauglath)', Uvanimor being defined elsewhere as 'monsters, giants, and ogres' / Fr.1/. With all this compare The Lord of the Rings, Appendix F (I): 'They [the Dwarves] are not evil by nature, and few ever served the Enemy of free will, whatever the tales of Men may have alleged'.

Fr.39
/HME 2. P.283-288/
BLT2/5 Lost Story 2-6. The History of Eriol or Aelfwine and the End of the Tales.
/Rend./
/HME 2. P. 283/ The compiler of the Golden Book takes up the Tale: one of the children of the fathers of the fathers of Men. [Against this is written:] It may perhaps be much better to let Eriol himself see the last things and finish the book. Rising of the Lost Elves against the Orcs and Nautar. /.../ The Battle of Ros: the Island-elves and the Lost Elves against Nautar, Gongs, Orcs, and a few evil Men. Defeat of the Elves. The fading Elves retire to Tol Eressea /=Britain/ and hide in the woods. Men come to Tol Eressea /which changes i.e. into England at last/ and also Orcs, Dwarves, Gongs, Trolls, etc. After the Battle of Ros the Elves faded with sorrow. They cannot live in air breathed by a number of Men equal to their own or greater; and ever as Men wax more powerful and numerous so the fairies fade and grow small and tenuous, filmy and transparent, but Men larger and more dense and gross. At last Men, or almost all, can no longer see the fairies. The Gods now dwell in Valinor, and come scarcely ever to the world, being content with the restraining of the elements from utterly destroying Men. They grieve much at what they see; but Iluvatar is over all. /P.284/ On the page opposite the passage about the Battle of Ros is written: A great battle between Men at the Heath of the Sky-roof (now the Withered Heath), about a league from Tavrobel. The Elves and the Children flee over the Gruir and the Afros.
/Comm./
/P.285/ Precisely who are to be understood by the 'Lost Elves' is not clear; but in Gilfanon's Tale (I. 231) all Elves of the Great Lands 'that never saw the light at Kor' (Ilkorins), whether or not they left the Waters of Awakening, are called 'the lost fairies of the world', and this seems likely to be the meaning here. It must then be supposed that there dwelt on Tol Eressea only the Eldar of Kor (the 'Exiles') and the Noldoli released from thraldom under Melko /.../ The word Nautar occurs in a rejected outline for the Tale of the Nauglafring (/HME 2/ p. 136), where it is equated with Nauglath (Dwarves) .Gongs: these are evil beings obscurely related to Orcs: see /HME/ I. 245 note 10 / Fr.4, Note 1/, and the rejected outlines for the Tale of the Nauglafring given on pp. 136-7. / Fr.22-23/.
/Rend./
/P.287/ Eriol flees with the fading Elves from the Battle of the High Heath (Ladwen-na-Dhaideloth) and crosses the Gruir and the Afros. /.../ His /Eriol's/ epilogue after the battle of Ladwen Daideloth is written. /.../ In scattered notes the battle is also called 'the Battle of the Heaven Roof' and 'the Battle of Dor-na-Dhaideloth'. /.../. I give now the text of the Epilogue: "/.../ /P. 288/ /.../ And now sorrow and..... has come upon the Elves, empty is Tavrobel and all are fled, the enemy that sitteth on the ruined heath, who is not a league away; whose hands are red with the blood of Elves and stained with the lives of his own kin, who has made himself an ally to Melko and the Lord of Hate, who has fought for the Orcs and Gongs and the unwholesome monsters of the world - blind, and a fool, and destruction alone is his knowledge".

Fr.40
/HME 2. P.335-6, 340/
BLT2/Appendix. Names in the Lost Tales, Pt.2.
/P.335/ Linguistic information from the Name-list to The Fall of Gondolin (see /HME 2/ p.148) incorporated in these notes is referred to 'NFG'. 'GL' and 'QL' refer to the Gnomish and Qenya dictionaries (see /HME/ I. 246ff.). /.../
/P.336/ Balcmeg In NFG it is said that Balcmeg 'was a great fighter among the Orclim (Orqui say the Elves) who fell to the axe of Tuor -- 'tis in meaning "heart of evil".' (For -lim in Orclim see Condothlim.) The entry for Balrog in NFG says: 'Bal meaneth evilness, and Balc evil, and Balrog meaneth evil demon.' GL has balc 'cruel'. see /HME/ I. 250 (Balrog).
/P.340/ Glamhoth GL defines this as 'name given by the Goldothrim to the Orcin: People of Dreadful Hate' (cf. 'folk of dreadful hate', p. 160). For Goldothrim see I. 262 (Noldoli). The first element is glam 'hatred, loathing'; other words are glamri 'bitter feud', glamog 'loathsome'. An entry in NFG says: 'Glam meaneth "fierce hate" and even as Gwar has no kindred words in Eldar.' For hoth 'folk' see I. 264 (orchoth in entry Orc), and cf. Goldothrim, Gondothlim, Rumhoth, Thornhoth. Under root HOSO QL gives hos 'folk', hosse' 'army, band, troop', hostar 'tribe', horma 'horde, host', also Sankossi 'the Goblins', equivalent of Gnomish Glamhoth, and evidently compounded of sanke 'hateful' (root SNKN 'rend, tear') and hosse.

Fr.41a-ff
Цель этой подборки - продемонстрировать присутствие в Арде особых древнейших "даймонов"-фэйри, которые, согласно эльфийской мифологии, предшествуют всем "детям Илуватара" и являются изначальными, часто не связанными специально ни с Валар, ни с Морготом, но имманентно присущими Арде как ее необходимая часть "духами природы" (сf. Йарвен во "Властелине", в котором можно с наибольшей вероятностью видеть крупнейшего представителя этой категории существ - "Хозяина мира", воплощенного духа-всей-Арды-в-целом, причем, как было остроумно предположено недавно, Арды в ее изначальном, "неискаженном" состоянии). Как видно из того, что люди могли смешивать этих фэйри с эльфами в одну категорию "народа тени" или включать их в число эльфов как таковых (ср. ниже применение термина Shadow Folk одинаково к тем и другим обитателям Хисиломе и вообще отождествление людьми множества ардианских духов с эльфами), внешне от эльфов они ничем не отличались, что позволяет гипотетически выводить из их среды и эльфов, и особенно другие сходные расы, включая орков. Cf. also Fr.2, 4, 4a, 15; Fr.58, l.2132; Fr.112, 132 on bogeys, 228a-d; cf. одинаковое эльфийское наименование орков и балрогов *"рауко" с общим значением "демон" (аналогичнo "гоблину", как называли и орков, и прочую нечисть, и нолдор)! Поскольку, по наиболее архаическим и наименее тенденциозным изводам эльфийской мифологии, орки появились еще до "Пробуждения" эльфов и людей, и при этом отличаются всеми источниками от животных, этих исходных орков остается либо выводить из общности указанных исходных "фэйри" (естественнонаучный выбор), либо считать псевдожизнью, кремниевыми биороботами, созданными Мелькором (одна из теологических версий, представленная мифом о творении орков Мелькором из камня).
Подробнее о фэйри и о происхождении орков от одной из их категорий cмотрите текст под названием "Из айнур в фэйри: фэйри Арды - от Бомбадила до древнейших орков".

a. BLT1/5. /Lost Story V/. The Coming of the Elves and the Making of Kor. /HME 1. P.118-119/.
Grievous had been their /Elvish/ march /to the shores of Great Sea on the rout to Valinor/, and dark and difficult the way through Hisilome the land of shade, despite the skill and power of Orome. Indeed long after the joy of Valinor had washed its memory faint the Elves sang still sadly of it, and told tales of many of their folk whom they aid and say were lost in those old forests and ever wandered there in sorrow. Still were they there long after when Men were shut in Hisilome by Melko, and still do they dance there when Men have wandered far over the lighter places of the Earth. Hisilome did Men name Aryador, and the Lost Elves did they call the Shadow Folk, and feared them.
b. BLT1/9. /Lost Story IX/. The Hiding of Valinor. /HME 1. P.215/.
Now at first the Valar purposed to draw the Sun and Moon beneath the Earth.../.../ and much precious radiance was spilled in their attempts about the deepest waters, and escaped to linger as secret sparks in many an unknown ocean cavern. These have many elfin divers, and divers of the fays, long time sought beyond the outmost East.
c. BLT 1/10. /Lost Story X/ Gilfanon's Tale: The Travail of the Noldoli and the Coming of Mankind. Earlier Outlines (A, B) on the History of the Exiled Gnomes /Rend./ /HME 1. P.237/.
The Gnomes, after the passage of Helkarakse, spread into Hisilome, whew they bad 'trouble' with the ancient Shadow Folk in that land -- in A called 'fay-people', in B 'Uvalear fays'. (We have met the Shadow Folk of Hisilome before, in the tale of The Coming of the Elves, p. 118-119, but there this is a name given by Men, after they were shut in Hisilome by Melko, to the Lost Elves who remained there after straying on the march from Palisor. It will be seen in the later outlines that these Shadow Folk were an unknown people wholly distinct from Elves; and it seems therefore that the name was preserved while given a new interpretation).
d. BLT 1/10. /Lost Story X/ Gilfanon's Tale: The Travail of the Noldoli and the Coming of Mankind. Later Outlines (A, B) on the History of the Exiled Gnomes /Rend./ /HME 1. P.239/.
The Gnomes sojourned in the Land of Shadows (i.e. Hisilome), and had dealings with the Shadow Folk. These were fays (C); no one knows whence they came: they are not of the Valar nor of Melko, but it is thought that they came from the outer void and primeval dark when the world was first fashioned.
cf. e. BLT 2/1. /Comm./ /HME 2. P.63-64/.
In The Coming of the Elves (/HME/ I.115) 'Tinwe abode not long with his people, and yet 'tis said lives still lord of the scattered Elves of Hisilome'; and in the same tale (/HME/ I. 118-19) the 'Lost Elves' were still there 'long after when Men were shut in Hisilome by Melko', and Men called them the Shadow Folk, and feared them. But in the Tale of Tinuviel the conception has changed. Tinwelint is now a king ruling, not in Hisilome, but in Artanor.*
*In the outlines for Gilfanon's Tale the 'Shadow Folk' of Hisilome have ceased to be Elves and become 'fays' whose origin is unknown: /HME/ I. 237, 239.
f. ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/. . Luthien in guise of evil fay rode upon the werewolf. /Cf. Fr.58, l.2132/.
g. LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/. . /.../ Melian was a fay, of the race of the Valar.
cf. g-1. Silmarillion-1977. Quenta Silmarillion /Silmarillion/. 4. Of Thingol and Melian. Melian was a Maia, of the race of the Valar.
g-2. BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel. Gwendeling the fay /.../ 'What was Queen Wendelin like (for so do the Elves call her),' Veanne, if thou sawest her?' said Ausir. /.../ Indeed she was a sprite that escaped from Lorien's gardens before even Kor was built, and she wandered in the wooded places of the world, and nightingales went with her and often sang about her. /.../ Gwendeling was not elf or woman but of the children of the Gods /.../
g-3. BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel. Her /Tinuviel's/ mother /Wendelin = Melian/ was a fay, a daughter of the Gods. /.../ /Comm./ /In typed variant/ 'Her mother was a fay, a child of Lorien /in Aman/' /stands/ for manuscript 'her mother was a fay, a daughter of the Gods'.
g-4. BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel. He /Melkor/ treasured those jewels as his eyes, and no one in the world, or fay or elf or man, could hope ever to set finger even on them and live.
g-5. BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel. Then did Tinuviel begin such a dance as neither she nor any other sprite or fay or elf danced ever before or has done since.
g-6. BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel. /.../ Melian the fay.
g-7. BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel. Long, long after, as thou knowest, Melko brake again into the world from Valinor, and all the Eldar both those who remained in the dark or had been lost upon the march from Palisor and those Noldoli too who fared back into the world after him seeking their stolen treasury fell beneath his power as thralls. Yet it is told that many there were who escaped and wandered in the woods and empty places, and of these many a wild and woodland clan rallied beneath King Tinwelint. Of those the most were Ilkorindi -which is to say Eldar that never had beheld Valinor or the Two Trees or dwelt in Kor -- and eerie they were and strange beings, knowing little of light or loveliness or of musics save it be dark songs and chantings of a rugged wonder that faded in the wooded places or echoed in deep caves. Different indeed did they become when the Sun arose, and indeed before that already were their numbers mingled with a many wandering Gnomes, and wayward sprites too there were of Lorien's host that dwelt in the courts of Tinwelint, being followers of Gwendeling, and these were not of the kindreds of the Eldalie.
h. LsR (HME5)/3. The Etymologies.
THUR- surround, fence, ward, hedge in, secrete. /.../ /Ilkor./ Thurin-gwethil (woman of) secret shadow, Doriathren name (Noldor. Dolwethil) assumed by Tinuviel as a bat-shaped fay [+WATH /shade/]. [Cf. the Lay of Leithian /HME 3/3/, line 3954, where a marginal note explains Thuringwethil as 'she of hidden shadow' (/HME/ 3. P. 297, 304). The present entry retains the story of the Lay: it was Luthien who called herself by this name before Morgoth (see /HME/ 3. 306)].
i. BLT 1 (HME 1)/3. /Lost Story III/ The Coming of Valar and the Building of Valinor.
Yet even when all these had crossed the confines of the world and Vilna was in uproar with their passing, there came still hurrying late Makar and his fierce sister Measse; and it had been better had they not found the world but remained for ever with the Ainur beyond Vaitya and the stars, for both were spirits of quarrelsome mood, and with some other lesser ones who came now with them had been the first and chief to join in the discords of Melko and to aid in the spreading of his music. /../
/Three Skies' levels/ three airs. Vaitya is that which is wrapped dark and sluggish about the world and without it, but Ilwe is blue and clear and flows among the stars, and last came they to Vilna that is grey and therein may the birds fly safely.With them came many of those lesser Vali who loved them and had played nigh them and attuned their music to theirs, and these are the Manir and the Suruli, the sylphs of the airs and of the winds.
/Coming of Aule and Yavanna to Middle-Earth before the Construction of the Lamps/ ...but with Aule was that great lady Palurien whose delights were richness and fruits of the earth, for which reason has she long been called Yavanna among the Eldar.About them fared a great host who are the sprites of trees and woods, of dale and forest and mountain-side, or those- that sing amid the grass at morning and chant among the standing corn at eve. These are the Nermir and the Tavari, Nandini and Orossi, brownies, fays, pixies, leprawns, and what else are they not called, for their number is very great: yet must they not be confused with the Eldar, for they were born before the world and are older than its oldest, and are not of it, but laugh at it much, for had they not somewhat to do with its making, so that it is for the most part a play for them; but the Eldar are of the world and love it with a great and burning love, and are wistful in all their happiness for that reason.
/Comm./ Particularly interesting is the passage concerning the host of lesser spirits who accompanied Aule and Palurien, from which one sees how old is the conception of the Eldar as quite dissimilar in essential nature from 'brownies, fays, pixies, leprawns', since the Eldar are 'of the world' and bound to it, whereas those others are beings from before the world's making. In the later work there is no trace of any such explanation of the 'pixie' element in the world's population: the Maiar are little referred to, and certainly not said to include such beings as 'sing amid the grass at morning and chant among the standing corn at eve'.*
* Cf. The Silmarillion p. 30: 'With the Valar came other spirits whose being also began before the world, of the same order as the Valar but of less degree. These are the Maiar, the people of the Valar, and their servants and helpers. Their number is not known to the Elves, and few have names in any of the tongues of the Children of Iluvatar.' An earlier version of this passage reads: 'Many lesser spirits they [the Valar] brought in their train, both great and small, and some of these Men have confused with the Eldar or Elves; but wrongly, for they were before the world, but Elves and Men awoke first in the world after the coming of the Valar.'
j. BLT 1 (HME 1)/4. The chaining of Melko.
That night Eriol heard again in his sleep the music that had so moved him on the first night; and the next morning he went again into the gardens early. There he met Vaire, and she called him Eriol: 'that was the first making and uttering of that name'. Eriol told Vaire of the 'dream-musics' he had heard, and she said that it was no dream-music, but rather the flute of Timpinen, 'whom those Gnomes Rumil and Little- heart and others of my house call Tinfang'. She told him that the children called him Tinfang Warble; and that he played and danced in summer dusks for joy of the first stars: 'at every note a new one sparkles forth and glisters. The Noldoli say that they come out too soon if Tinfang Warble plays, and they love him, and the children will watch often from the windows lest he tread the shadowy lawns unseen.' She told Eriol that he was 'shier than a fawn -- swift to hide and dart away as any vole: a footstep on a twig and he is away, and his fluting will come mocking from afar'. 'And a marvel of wizardry liveth in that fluting,' said Eriol, 'if that it be indeed which I have heard now for two nights here. 'There be none,' said Vaire, 'not even of the Solosimpi, who can rival him therein, albeit those same pipers claim him as their kin; yet 'tis said everywhere that this quaint spirit is neither wholly of the Valar nor of the Eldar, but is half a fay of the woods and dells, one of the great companies of the children of Palurien, and half a Gnome or a Shoreland Piper.' Howso that be he is a wondrous wise and strange creature, and he fared hither away with the Eldar long ago, marching nor resting among them but going always ahead piping strangely or whiles sitting aloof. Now does he play about the gardens of the land; but Alalminore he loves the best, and this garden best of all. Ever and again we miss his piping for long months, and we say: "Tinfang Warble has gone heart-breaking in the Great Lands, and many a one in those far regions will hear his piping in the dusk outside tonight."
/Comm./ In the earliest version Tinfang is called a 'leprawn', and in the early glossary of the Gnomish speech he is a 'fay'.
k. BLT 1 (HME 1)/4. The chaining of Melko.
/After Lamps' destruction but before Elves' Awakening/ Then Palurien Yavanna fared forth from her fruitful gardens to survey the wide lands of her domain, and wandered the dark continents sowing seed and brooding upon hill and dale. /.../. Now was Orome less gloomy and Palurien was comforted, seeing the beauty of the first stars of Varda /.../ At that time did many strange spirits fare into the world, for there were pleasant places dark and quiet for them to dwell in. Some came from Mandos, aged spirits that journeyed from Iluvatar with him who are older than the world and very gloomy and secret, and some from the fortresses of the North where Melko then dwelt in the deep dungeons of Utumna. Full of evil and unwholesome were they; luring and restlessness and horror they brought, turning the dark into an ill and fearful thing, which it was not before. But some few danced thither with gentle feet exuding evening scents, and these came from the gardens of Lorien. Still is the world full of these in the days of light, lingering alone in shadowy hearts of primeval forests, calling secret things across a starry waste, and haunting caverns in the hills that few have found: -- but the pinewoods are yet too full of these old unelfin and inhuman spirits for the quietude of Eldar or of Men.
l. BLT 1 (HME 1)/4. The chaining of Melko.
/When Melko was chained/ /.../ And the saps and cavernous places beneath the surface of the earth are full yet of the dark spirits that were prisoned that day when Melko was taken, and yet many are the ways whereby they find the outer world from time to time -- from fissures where they shriek with the voices of the tide on rocky coasts, down dark water-ways that wind unseen for many leagues, or out of the blue arches where the glaciers of Melko find their end.
m. BLT 1 (HME 1)/4. The chaining of Melko. Note 4 /Comm./
The text as originally written read: but the great Gods may not be slain, though their children may and all those lesser people of the Vali, albeit only at the hands of some one of the Valar.'
n. BLT 1 (HME 1)/5. The coming of the Elves and the Making of Kor.
"Lo! the Earth and its shadows are no place for creatures so fair /Eldar/, whom only the heart and mind of Iluvatar have conceived. Fair are the pine-forests and the thickets, but they are full of unelfin spirits and Mandos' children walk abroad and vassals of Melko lurk in strange places -- and we ourselves would not be without the sight of this sweet folk.
o. ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/
Many spirits1 they /Valar/ brought in their train, both great and small, and some of these Men have confused with the Eldar or Elves: but wrongly, for they were before the world, but Elves and Men awoke first in the world after the coming of the Valar. Yet in the making of Elves and Men and in the giving to each of their especial gifts Iluvatar alone had part; wherefore they are called the Children of the World or of Iluvatar.
Note 1. Many spirits > Many lesser spirits (late change).
p. ShME (HME 4)/6. The Earliest Annals of Valinor /AV 1/
/beginning section/
Here begin the Annals of Valinor. /.../ With them /Valar/ came many lesser spirits, their children, or beings of their own kind but of less might; these are the Valarindi.
/Val.Year 2000/
The Valian Year 2000 is accounted the Noon tide of the Blessed Realm, and the full season of the mirth of the Gods. Then did Varda make the stars and set them aloft, and thereafter some of the Valarindi strayed into the Middle-earth, and among them was Melian, whose voice was renowned in Valmar.
q. ShME (HME 4)/6. The Earliest Annals of Valinor /AV 1/. Comm. to engl.translation.
This is not a version, but a single page of manuscript with first, a different beginning to the Annals of Valinor in Modern English, and then ten lines, written very rapidly, in Old English. Both contain interesting features. The first reads as follows: In what is said here concerning the lesser spirits of Valarin race there are differences from AV (/HME 4/ p. 311) and the Old English version II (/HME 4/ p. 340). In this present fragment these spirits are not called Valarindi but Vanimor, 'the Fair'. The Children of the Valar, 'who were many and very beautiful', are counted among the Vanimor, but, in contradiction to AV, they were "on worolde acende", 'born in the world'. At this time, it seems, my father was tending to emphasize the generative powers of the great Valar, though afterwards all trace of the conception disappeared.
r. LsR (HME5)/2:2. The Later Annals of Valinor /AV 2/
/beginning section/
With these great ones /Valar/ came many lesser spirits, beings of their own kind but of smaller might; these are the Vanimor, the Beautiful. And with them also were later numbered their children, begotten in the world, but of divine race, who were many and fair; these are the Valarindi.
/Comm. to beginning section/. This is associated with development in the idea of the lesser beings who came into the world with the Valar, which underwent several changes (ultimately emerging into the conception of the Maiar). In Q (/HME/ IV. 78) these spirits are mentioned but not given any name, and the same remains the case in QS (§2). In AV 1 (/HME/ IV. 263) a distinction is made between the children of the Valar on the one hand and 'beings of their own kind but of less might' on the other; but all entered the world with the Valar, and all are called Valarindi. In AV 2 the distinction is enlarged: the lesser spirits, 'beings of their own kind but of smaller might', who came with the Valar, are the Vanimor, 'the Beautiful', and the Children of the Valar, who did not enter the world with them but were begotten in the world, are the Valarindi; these were 'later numbered with' the Vanimor. In the Old English fragment referred to above the same is said, though the name Valarindi is not there given to the Children of the Valar (/HME/ IV. 293).
s. LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/.
/...Eru/ showed the World to the Ainur. And many of the mightiest of them became enamoured of its beauty, and desired to enter into it; and they put on the raiment of the World, and descended into it, and they are in it. . These spirits the Elves name the Valar, which is the Powers, and Men have often called them Gods. Many lesser spirits of their own kind they brought in their train, both great and small; and some of these Men have confused with the Elves, but wrongly, for they were made before the World, whereas Elves and Men awoke first in the World, after the coming of the Valar. Yet in the making of Elves and of Men, and in the giving to each of their especial gifts, none of the Valar had any part. Iluvatar alone was their author; wherefore they are called the Children of Iluvatar.
t. LsR (HME5)/3. The Etymologies.
BAN- * bana: Q Vana name of the Vala, wife of Orome, and sister of Varda and Yavanna; ON and T Bana; in ON also called Bana-wende, whence EN Banwend, Banwen (see WEN). * banya: Q vanya beautiful; EN bein. Cf. Q vanima fair; Vanimo, pl. Vanimor 'the beautiful', children of the Valar; Uvanimo monster (creature of Melko); EN uan (* ubano) monster; uanui monstrous, hideous.
ULUG- T ulga, Ilk. olg hideous, horrible; *ulgundo monster, deformed and hideous creature: Q ulundo; T ulgundo, Ilk. ulgund, ulgon, ulion; N ulund, ulun. Also ULGU: cf. Ul- in Ulfang, Uldor, Ulfast, Ulwarth, names of Swartmen.
u. LsR (HME 5)/App.:1. The Genealogies.
The name Vanimor is used in AV 2 of the lesser spirits of Valarin race, among whom were 'later numbered' also the Valarindi, the Children of the Valar (/HME 5/ pp. 110, 121); the latter are the Vanimor in the Etymologies, stem BAN, but under the negative stems UGU, UMU the name is translated 'fair folk = (men and) elves'.
v. SD (HME 9)/3:(i). The third version of The Fall of Numenor. The Last Tales. The Fall of Numenor.
/At the very beginning of the Second Age the Dark creatures of Middle-Earth threatend its peoples/. Therefore the hearts of the Eruhin /Eru's Children/ were turned westward, where was the land of Aman, as they believed, and an abiding peace. And it is said that of old there was a fair folk dwelling yet in Middle-earth, and Men knew not whence they came. But some said that they were the children of the Avaloi /Valar, Gods/ and did not die, for their home was in the Blessed Realm far away, whither they still might go, and whence they came, working the will of Aman in all the lesser deeds and labours of the world. The Eledai they were named in their own tongue of old, but by the Eruhin they were called Nimri, the Shining Ones, for they were exceeding fair to look upon, and fair were all the works of their tongues and hands. And the Nimri became sorrowful in the darkness of the days and withdrew ever westward; and never again was grass so green, nor flower so fair, nor water so filled with light when they had gone. And the Eruhin for the most part followed them, though some there were that remained in the Great Lands, free men, serving no evil lord; and they were shepherds and dwelt far from the towers and cities of the kings. But those of the Eruhin who were mightiest and most fair, closest in friendship with the Nimri, most beloved by the Servants of God, turned their faces to the light of the West /.../ And at the end of journeys beyond memory they came at last to the shores of the Great Seas. There they halted and were filled with great dread, and with longing; for the Nimri passed ever over the waters, seeking the land of Aman, and the Eruhin could not follow them. Then such of the Nimri as remained in the west of the world took pity on the Eruhin, and instructed them in many arts.
/Comm. to §5/. In §16 the Nimri are called, without any qualification of 'some said', 'the children of the Deathless Folk'. Cf. the opening of the Quenta Silmarillion (/HME/ V.204, §2): "These spirits the Elves name the Valar, which is the Powers, and Men have often called them Gods. Many lesser spirits of their own kind they brought in their train, both great and small; and some of these Men have confused with the Elves, but wrongly, for they were made before the World, whereas Elves and Men awoke first in the World, after the coming of the Valar". Though not mentioned in this passage, the conception of 'the Children of the Valar' is frequently encountered in the Quenta Silmarillion; and cf. especially The Later Annals of Valinor (V.110): 'With these great ones came many lesser spirits, beings of their own kind but of smaller might... And with them also were later numbered their children...' /.../ Eledai: this name is found elsewhere.
w. MR (HME 10)/3:1:1. The The Later Quenta Silmarillion. The First Phase. Of the Valar. These spirits the Elves name the Valar, which is the Powers, and Men have often called them gods. Many lesser spirits of their own kind they brought in their train, both great and small; and some of these Men have confused with the Elves, but wrongfully [read wrongly], for they were made before the World, whereas Elves and Men awoke first on Earth, after the coming of the Valar. Yet in the making of Elves and of Men, and in the giving to each of their especial gifts, none of the Valar had any part. Iluvatar alone was their author; wherefore they are called the Children of Iluvatar [> Eru].
y. Silmarillion-1977. Valaquenta. Of the Valar.
The Great among these spirits the Elves name the Valar, the Powers of Arda, and Men have often called them gods. The Lords of the Valar are seven; and the Valier, the Queens of the Valar, are seven also.
z. Silmarillion-1977. Valaquenta. Of the Maiar.
With the Valar came other spirits whose being also began before the World, of the same order as the Valar but of less degree. These are the Maiar, the people of the Valar, and their servants and helpers. Their number is not known to the Elves, and few have names in any of the tongues of the Children of Iluvatar; for though it is otherwise in Aman, in Middle-earth the Maiar have seldom appeared in form visible to Elves and Men.
aa. Silmarillion-1977. Quenta Silmarillion /Silmarillion/. 2. On Aule and Yavanna.
/After Trees were created but before the Awakening of Elves/
Eru hath spoken, saying: "Do then any of the Valar suppose that I did not hear all the Song, even the least sound of the least voice? Behold! When the Children awake, then the thought of Yavanna will -awake also, and it will summon spirits from afar, and they will go among the kelvar and the olvar, and some will dwell therein, and be held in reverence, and their just anger shall be feared. For a time: while the Firstborn are in their power, and while the Secondborn are young".
bb. /Note the creatures' list/. Silmarillion-1977. Quenta Silmarillion /Silmarillion/. Of the Flight of the Noldor.
/Feanorings vowed/ to pursue with vengeance and hatred to the ends of the World Vala, Demon, Elf or Man as yet unborn, or any creature, great or small, good or evil, that time should bring forth unto the end of days, whoso should hold or take or keep a Silmaril from their possession.
/Cf. bb to/ cc. Silmarillion-1977. Quenta Silmarillion /Silmarillion/. 19. Of Beren and Luthien.
Then Celegorm arose amid the throng, and drawing his sword he cried: 'Be he friend or foe, whether demon of Morgoth, of Elf, or child of Men, or any other living thing in Arda, /nothing.../ shall defend him from the pursuing hate of Feanor's sons, if he take or find a Silmaril and keep it.
dd. Silmarillion-1977. Quenta Silmarillion /Silmarillion/. 19. Of Beren and Luthien.
Sauron brought werewolves, fell beasts inhabited by dreadful spirits that he had imprisoned in their bodies.
ee. Hobbit 1. An Unexpected Party.
It was often said (in other /hobbit/ families) that long ago one of the Took ancestors must have taken a fairy wife. That was, of course, absurd, but certainly there was still something not entirely hobbit-like about them.
ee-1. Hobbit 1, первые два издания. Дм.Виноходов любезно сообщил, что приведенная только что фраза в них стояла в таком виде:
It had always been said that long ago one or other of the Tooks had married into a fairy family (the less friendly said a goblin family).
ff. BLT 2/1. BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel. /HME 2. P.29/. For long has it been said that Tevildo /The Cat/ was an evil fay in beastlike shape.
ff1. BLT2/1 Lost Story 2-I. The Tale of Tinuviel. Now Tevildo was a mighty cat -- the mightiest of all -- and possessed of an evil sprite, as some say.

Fr.42
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. /l.181-184/
There /in Hithlum hills/ Turin and the twain knew torment of thirst,
and hunger and fear and hideous nights,
for wolfriders and wandering Orcs
and the Things of Morgoth thronged the woodland.

Fr.43
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. /l.297-299/
a helm of Hurin that was hewn in war
when he battled with Beren his brother-in-arms
against ogres and Orcs and evil foemen;

Fr.44
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. /l.382-384/
Ere manhood's measure he /Turin/ met and slew
the Orcs of Angband and evil things
that roamed and ravened on the realm's borders.

Fr.45
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. /l.556-558/
Long time alone he lived in the hills
a hunter of beast and hater of Men,
or Orcs, or Elves.

Fr.46
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. /l.569-572/
Afar from that fight his fate that day
had taken Turin on the trail of the Orcs,
as they hastened home to the Hills of Iron
with the loot laden of the lands of Men.

Fr.47
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. /l.738-740, 746-748/
/Thingol/ Unmatched among Men, or magic-wielding /738/
Elves, or hunters of the Orc-kindred,
or beasts of prey for blood pining. /.../
The grim Glamhoth's goblin armies /746/
go cunning-footed, but his craft failed not
to tread their trail /.../

Fr.48
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. /l.755-758/
There magic foundered
in the gathering glooms, there goblins even
(whose deep eyes drill the darkest shadows)
bewildered wandered.

Fr.49
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. /l.861-865/
Hurin Thalion, who Erithamrod hight,
the Unbending, for Orc and Balrog
and Morgoth's might on the mountain yet
he defies fearless, on a fanged peak
of thunder-riven Thangorodrim.

Fr.50
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. /l.1244-1248, 1258-1263/
/Turin has an illusion of seeing some foes, which he calles irrespectivelyy Orcs, Glamhoth and goblins/
His death or torment he deemed was come, /1244/
oft had the Orcs for evil pastime
him goaded gleeful and gashed with knives
that they cast with cunning, with cruel spears.
Lo! the bonds were burst that had bound his hands: /.../
With oath and curse /1258/
he /Turin/ bade the goblins now guard them well,
or sup on his sword: 'Lo! the son of Hurin
is freed from his fetters.' His fancy wandered
in the camps and clearings of the cruel Glamhoth.


Fr.51
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. /l.1309-1318/
Now wafted high, now wavering far,
the cries of the Glamhoth called and hooted, /1310/
and the howl of wolves in the heavens' roaring
was mingled mournful: they missed their paths,
for swollen swept there swirling torrents
down the blackening slopes, and the slot was blind,
so that blundering back up the beaten road
to the gates of gloom many goblins wildered
were drowned or drawn in Deadly Nightshade
to die in the dark

Fr.52
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. /l.1692-1693/
Here /where Beleg was killed/ dread dwelleth, none dare profane
this angry earth, Orc nor goblin;

Fr.53
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. /l.1764-1765/
In this fashion fought they, phantom hunters
that wandering Orc and wild foeman

Fr.54
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. Version II. /l.206-209/
To the hosts of Hell his head then he turned:
'Let thy foul banners go forth to battle,
ye Balrogs and Orcs; let your black legions
go seek the sweeping sword of Turgon.

Fr.55
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. Version II. /l.470-473/
There Turin and the twain knew torture of thirst
and hunger and fear, and hideous flight
from wolfriders and wandering Orcs
and the things of Morgoth that thronged the woods.

Fr.56
LB (HME 3)/1. The Lay of the Children of Hurin. Version II. /l.638-639/
he /Hurin/ battled with Beren as brother and comrade
against ogres and Orcs and evil foes.

Fr.57
LB (HME 3)/2. Poems Early Abandoned. (iii) The Lay of the Fall of Gondolin /HME 3. P.146/
Twas the bent blades of the Glamhoth that drank Fingolfin's life
as he stood alone by Feanor

Fr.57а
LB (HME 3)/3. The Lay of Leithian /l.1662-1665/
their host
beleaguered Angband, till they boast
no Orc nor demon ever dare
their leaguer break or past them fare.

Fr.58
LB (HME 3)/3. The Lay of Leithian /l.1941-2135/
Now far beyond the realm immune /1941/
from Orc and demon and the dread
of Morgoth's might their ways had led./.../
Then many a lamp /1955/
of sullen red they saw draw near,
swinging, and glistening on spear
and scimitar. There hidden nigh
they saw a band of Orcs go by
with goblin-faces swart and foul. /1960/
Bats were about them, and the owl,
the ghostly forsaken night-bird cried
from trees above. The voices died,
the laughter like clash of stone and steel
passed and faded. /.../
This desperate counsel had the wit /1995/
of Felagund for them devised:
as Orcs his comrades he disguised.
The poisoned spears, the bows of horn,
the crooked swords their foes had borne
they took; and loathing each him clad /2000/
in Angband's raiment foul and sad.
They smeared their hands and faces fair
with pigment dark; the matted hair
all lank and black from goblin head
they shore, and joined it thread by thread /2005/
with Gnomish skill. As each one leers
at each dismayed, about his ears
he hangs it noisome, shuddering.
Then Felagund a spell did sing
of changing and of shifting shape; /2010/
their ears grew hideous, and agape
their mouths did start, and like a fang
each tooth became, as slow he sang.
Their Gnomish raiment then they hid,
and one by one behind him slid, /2015/
behind a foul and goblin thing
that once was elven-fair and king.
Northward they went; and Orcs they met
who passed, nor did their going let,
but hailed them in greeting. /.../
/Real Orcs say/* 'Sharp are your ears, swift have they got /2117/
tidings of realms ye entered not!
What are your names, o spearmen bold?
Who your captain, ye have not told.'
'Nereb and Dungalef and warriors ten,
so we are called, and dark our den
under the mountains. Over the waste
we march on an errand of need and haste.
Boldog the captain awaits us there /2125/
where fires from under smoke and flare.'
'Boldog, I heard, was lately slain
warring on the borders of that domain
where Robber Thingol and outlaw folk
cringe and crawl beneath elm and oak /2130/
in drear Doriath. Heard ye not then
of that pretty fay, of Luthien?
Her body is fair, very white and fair.
Morgoth would possess her in his lair.
Boldog he sent, but Boldog was slain: /2135/
strange ye were not in Boldog's train.

*В чтении Кристофера Толкиена весь этот монолог принадлежит не оркам, а Саурону/Тху, допрашивающему героев на Тол-Гаурхот, "Острове веревольфов". Действительно, продолжение этой речи (со стк.2143) заведомо принадлежит Тху. Однако искреннее вожделение, проявляемое в цитированном отрывке по отношению к Лэтиэн (совершенно немыслимое для майа, а равно, хотя и по другим причинам, для веревольфов), которое говорящий не только высказывает от своего лица, но даже предполагает за вала Мелькором (!), в сочетании с переходом от 2-го лица по отношению к "Неребу" в стк. 2117 -2136 к 3-му в стк. 2137-2142 ("Нереб выглядит разъяренным /при словах о Лэтиэн/ ... что беспокоит его?" и т.д.) и затем опять ко 2-му в отрывке стк.2143 слл. ("Кому вы служите, Свету или Мраку?" и т.д.), а также с резким перепадом речи в этом отрывке (стк.2143 слл.) по сравнению с предыдущим (стк.2117-2136) от примитивно-солдатской к высокой и эмфатизированной и по тематике, и по стилю, побуждает нас считать, что в стк.2117-2136 "орков Нереба" допрашивает еще не сам Тху, а некие антропоморфные его подчиненные существенно более низкого статуса, то есть, вернее всего, служащие при нем орки же; затем, в стк.2137-2142 передаются мысли, посетившие Тху при этом допросе, и только со стк.2143 - его собственные слова, начиная с того момента, как он, под воздействием этих мыслей, вступил в разговор сам (чем и объясняется как перепад лица в промежутке между двумя отрывками прямой речи, так и контраст характера самих этих отрывков).

Fr.59
LB (HME 3)/3. The Lay of Leithian /Comm./ /Note to l.2193/
2193. Elvenland is an emendation to B Fairyland.

Fr.60a-c
a. LB (HME 3)/3. The Lay of Leithian /Comm./ /Commentary on Canto VII/. /HME 3. P.234/
/To l.2100 f./ The raid of the Orc-captain Boldog into Doriath, seeking to capture Luthien for Morgoth, was an important element in the history of this time, though later it disappeared and there is no trace of it in The Silmarillion.
b. LB (HME 3)/3. The Unwritten Cantos. /Rend./ /Synopsis V for Canto 12/. /HME 3. P.311/
Thingol's army meets with the host of Boldog on the borders of Doriath. Morgoth has heard of the beauty of Luthien, and the rumour of her wandering. He has ordered Thu /form of "-thaur" in "Gorthaur", i.e. Sauron/ and the Orcs to capture her. A battle is fought and Thingol is victorious. The Orcs are driven into Taur-na-Fuin or slain.Thingol himself slays Boldog.
c. ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/.
Boldog captain of the Orcs was there /on Doriath's Borders/ slain in battle by Thingol.

Fr.61
LB (HME 3)/3. The Lay of Leithian /l.3202-3204/
Now Orcs and phantoms prowl and peer
from tree to tree, and fill with fear
each shade and hollow.

Fr.62
LB (HME 3)/3. The Lay of Leithian /l.3382/
as Orc on werewolf ride like fire

Fr.63
LB (HME 3)/3. The Lay of Leithian /l.3510-3517/
They woke, and felt the trembling sound,
the beating echo far underground
shake beneath them, the rumour vast
of Morgoth's forges; and aghast
they heard the tramp of stony feet
that shod with iron went down that street: /3515/
the Orcs went forth to rape and war,
and Balrog captains marched before.

Fr.64
LB (HME 3)/3. The Lay of Leithian /l.3628-3631/
Never Orc nor demon after dared
that pass to climb, o'er which there stared
Fingolfin's high and holy tomb,
till Gondolin's appointed doom.

Fr.65
LB (HME 3)/3. The Lay of Leithian /l.3698-3701/
but by the chair
of Morgoth's self /Carcharoth/ would lie and glare,
nor suffer Balrog, Orc, nor beast
to touch him.
Fr.66
LB (HME 3)/3. The Lay of Leithian /l.4080/
Down crumpled Orc, and Balrog proud.

Fr.67
LB (HME 3)/3. The Lay of Leithian /l.4170-4175/
as Orc and beast
turned in their dreams of hideous feast;
in sleep uneasy Balrogs stirred,
and far above was faintly heard
an echo that in tunnels rolled,
a wolvish howling long and cold.

Fr.68
ShME (HME 4)/2. The Earliest Silmarillion (The 'Sketch of the Mythology') /S/

/After Lamps' destruction/ The Outer Lands are in darkness. The growth of things was checked when Morgoth quenched the lamps. There are forests of darkness, of yew and fir and ivy. There Orome sometimes hunts, but in the North Morgoth and his demonic broods (Balrogs) and the Orcs (Goblins, also called Glamhoth or people of hate) hold sway. Bridhil looks on the darkness and is moved, and taking all the hoarded light of Silpion (the white tree) she makes and strews the stars. At the making of the stars the children of Earth awake - the Eldar (or Elves).

Fr.69
ShME (HME 4)/2. The Earliest Silmarillion (The 'Sketch of the Mythology') /S/

/After the Trees' destruction/ she /Ungoliant/ enmeshes him /Morgoth/ in a black web, but he is rescued by the Balrogs with whips of flame, and the hosts of the Orcs; and Ungoliant goes away into the uttermost South. Morgoth returns to Angband, and his power and the numbers of his demons and Orcs becomes countless.
Fr.70
ShME (HME 4)/2. The Earliest Silmarillion (The 'Sketch of the Mythology') /S/

/Finweg's coming.../ withdrawal of Orcs and Balrogs to Angband /.../ The eagles dwell out of reach of Orc and Balrog, and are great foes of Morgoth and his people.

Fr.71
ShME (HME 4)/2. The Earliest Silmarillion (The 'Sketch of the Mythology') /S/
[§9, note 3]
The sons of Feanor live a wild and nomad life in the East, warring with Dwarves and Orcs and Men.

Fr.72a-c
a. ShME (HME 4)/2. The Earliest Silmarillion (The 'Sketch of the Mythology') /S/,
He fled the court thinking himself an outlaw, and took to war against all, Elves, Men, and Orcs, upon the borders of Doriath, gathering a wild band of hunted Men and Elves about him.
b. ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/,
He /Turin/ fled then the court, and thinking himself an outlaw took to war against all, Elves, Men, or Orcs, that crossed the path of the desperate band he gathered upon the border.
c. LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/. Chapter 17, .
Their hands were turned against all whom came in their path, Elves, Men, or Orcs.

Fr.73
ShME (HME 4)/2. The Earliest Silmarillion (The 'Sketch of the Mythology') /S/

/Ylmir's prophesy/ 'without Men the Elves shall not prevail against the Orcs and Balrogs'.

Fr.74
ShME (HME 4)/2. The Earliest Silmarillion (The 'Sketch of the Mythology') /S/

At last Morgoth is ready, and the attack is made on Gondolin with dragons, Balrogs, and Orcs.

Fr.75
ShME (HME 4)/2. The Earliest Silmarillion (The 'Sketch of the Mythology') /S/

The march of Fionwe into the North is then told, and of the Terrible or Last Battle. The Balrogs are all destroyed, and the Orcs destroyed or scattered. Morgoth himself makes a last sally with all his dragons; but they are destroyed, all save two which escape, by the sons of the Valar, and Morgoth is overthrown and bound' and his iron crown is made into a collar for his neck. /.../ The judgement of the Gods takes place. The earth is to be for Men, and the Elves who do not set sail for the Lonely Isle or Valinor shall slowly fade and fail. For a while the last dragons and Orcs shall grieve the earth, but in the end /в конце концов/ all shall perish by the valour of Men.

Fr.76
ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/

In all this time, since Morgoth overthrew the lamps, the Outer Lands east of the Mountains of Valinor were without light, /.../ while in the North Morgoth built his strength, and gathered his demon broods about him, whom the Gnomes knew after as the Balrogs with whips of flame. The hordes of the Orcs he made of stone, but their hearts of hatred. Glamhoth, people of hate, the Gnomes have called them. Goblins may they be called, but in ancient days they were strong and cruel and fell. Thus he held sway. Then Varda looked on the darkness and was moved /.../ and thence she made the stars. /.../ It is said that at the making of the stars the children of the earth awoke: the elder children of Iluvatar. Themselves they named the Eldar, whom we call the Elves, but in the beginning mightier and more strong were they, yet not more fair.

Fr.77
ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/

/After the Trees' destruction: Morgoth's quarrel with Ungoliant/ So mighty had Ungoliant become that she enmeshed Morgoth in her choking nets, and his awful cry echoed through the shuddering world. To his aid came the Orcs and Balrogs that lived yet in the lowest places of Angband. With their whips of flame the Balrogs smote the webs asunder, but Ungoliant was driven away into the uttermost South, where she long dwelt. Thus came Morgoth back to Angband, and there countless became the number of the hosts of his Orcs and demons /see note 8 to /.
Note 8. Written here later is the direction: "Here mention making of Orcs (/from/ p. 4)". Page 4 of the typescript contains the sentence / = Fr. 76/ The hordes of the Orcs he made of stone, but their hearts of hatred.

Fr.78
ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/

/First Battle of Gnomes=Noldor with Melkor's forces/ A host of Orcs aroused by the light of the burning ships came down on them, and there was battle on the plain /...which/ is called the Land of Thirst, Dor-na-Fauglith in the Gnomish tongue. There was the First Battle. Great was the slaughter of the Orcs and Balrogs, and no tale can tell the valour of Feanor or of his sons. Yet woe entered into that first great victory. For Feanor was wounded to the death by Gothmog Lord of Balrogs, whom Ecthelion after slew in Gondolin.

Fr.79a-c.
a. ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/

/First coming of Men into Broseliand=Beleriand. This Fr. proves that Orcs had their own language at the time, quite different from all others/
Then Felagund marvelled, for the tongue of those songs was not the tongue of Eldar or of Dwarves. Nor was it the tongue of Orcs, though this at first he feared. There were camped the people of Beor, a mighty warrior of Men, whose son was Barahir the bold. They were the first of Men to come into Broseliand.
b. WJ (HME11)/2:14. The Later Quenta Silmarillion /LQ 1 + LQ 2/. Of the Coming Men into te West.
/Note that from the following it appears that Orcs sing songs/
. In a valley among the foothills of the Mountains, below the springs of Thalos, he /an Elf/ saw lights in the evening, and far off he heard the sound of song. At this he wondered much, for the Green-elves of that land lit no fires, and they did not sing by night. At first he feared that a raid of Orcs had passed the leaguer of the North, but as he drew near he perceived that this was not so. For the singers used a tongue that he had not heard before, neither that of Dwarves nor of Orcs, and their voices were fair, though untutored in music. /They were Men/.
c. Silmarillion-1977. Quenta Silmarillion /Silmarillion/. 17. Of the Coming of Men into the West.
In a valley among the foothills of the mountains, below the springs of Thalos, he /Felagund/ saw lights in the evening, and far off he heard the sound of song. At this he wondered much, for the Green-elves of that land lit no fires, nor did they sing by night At first he feared that a raid of Orcs had passed the leaguer of the North, but as he drew near he perceived that it was not so; for the singers used a tongue that he had not heard before, neither that of Dwarves nor of Orcs. /They were Men/.

Fr.80a-b
a. ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/, .
There he /Thorondor, after rescuing Fingolfin's body from Morgoth/ set his cairn upon a mountain, and that mountain looks down upon the plain of Gondolin, and over the Mounnt of Fingolfin no Orc or demon ever dared to pass for a great while, till treachery was born among his /Fingolfin's/ kin.
b. LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/. Chapter 11, .
Neither Orc nor Balrog dared ever after to pass over the mount of Fingolfin or draw nigh his tomb, until the doom of Gondolin was come and treachery was born among his kin.

Fr.81
ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/

The Orcs laugh in secret when they remember it, telling how Morgoth fell from his chair and his iron crown rolled upon the floor /by magics of Luthien/.

Fr.82a-d
a. ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/,
Then in the plain began the Battle of Unnumbered Tears' /.../ Even yet the Elves might have won the day, for the Orcs wavered. But as the vanguard of Maidros came upon the Orcs, Morgoth let loose his last forces, and all Angband was empty. There came wolves and serpents, and there came Balrogs like fire, and there came the first of all the dragons, the eldest of all the Worms of Greed. Glomund was his name and long had his terror been noised abroad, though he was not come to his full growth and evil, and seldom had he been seen.Thus Morgoth strove to hinder the joining of the hosts of the Elves. /.../ Maidros and the sons of Feanor wrought great slaughter on Orc and Balrog and traitor Man that day, but the dragon they did not slay and the fire of his breath was the death of many. And they were driven in the end far away, and the Gorge of Aglon was filled with Orcs and the hill of Himling with the people of Morgoth.
cf. b. LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/. Chapter 16. On The Fourth Battle: Nirnaith Arnediad,
Morgoth let loose his last strength, and hell was emptied. There came wolves and serpents, and there came Balrogs one thousand, and there came Glomund the Father of Dragons. And the strength and terror of the Worm were now grown very great; and Elves and Men withered before him. Thus Morgoth hindered the joining of the hosts of the Elves; yet he would not have achieved this, neither with Balrog nor Dragon, had the captains of the Easterlings remained true. Many of these men now turned and fled; but the sons of Ulfang went over to the side of Morgoth /.../ From that day the hearts of the Elves were estranged from Men, save only from those of the Three Houses /.../ . Thus the design of Morgoth was fulfilled in a manner after his own heart; for Men took the lives of Men, and betrayed the Elves, and fear and hatred were aroused among those who should have been united against him /.../; and the Gorge of Aglon was filled with Orcs, and the Hill of Himring garrisoned by the soldiers of Angband, and the gates of the land were in the power of Morgoth.
cf. c. WJ (HME11)/1. The Grey Annals (The Annals of the Beleriand). /GA1+GA2/
472 Year of Sun. /Nirnaeth Arnoedidad/
. But even as the vanguard of Maidros came upon the Orcs, Morgoth loosed his last strength, and Angband was emptied. There came wolves, and wolfriders, and there came Balrogs a thousand, and there came worms and drakes, and Glaurung, Father of Dragons. And the strength and terror of the Great Worm were now grown great indeed, and Elves and Men withered before him; and he came between the hosts of Maidros and Fingon and swept them apart. . Yet neither by wolf, balrog, nor dragon would Morgoth have achieved his end, but for the treachery of Men /Easterlings under Ulfangings/. /.../ But new strength of evil men came up that Uldor had summoned and kept hidden in the eastern hills, and the host of Maidros being assailed now on three sides, by the Orcs, and the beasts, and by the Swarthy Men, was dispersed and fled this way and that. /.../ . The March of Maidros was no more. /.../ The Gorge of Aglon was filled with Orcs, and the Hill of Himring was garrisoned by soldiers of Angband.
cf. d. Silmarillion-1977. Quenta Silmarillion /Silmarillion/. 20. Of the Fifth Battle. Nirnaeth Arnoedidad.
Some have said that even then the Eldar might have won the day, had all their hosts proved faithful; for the Orcs wavered, and their onslaught was stayed, and already some were turning to flight. But even as the vanguard of Maedhros came upon the Orcs, Morgoth loosed his last strength, and Angband was emptied. There came wolves, and wolfriders, and there came Balrogs, and dragons, and Glaurung father of dragons. The strength and terror of the Great Worm were now great indeed, and Elves and Men withered before him; and he came between the hosts of Maedhros and Fingon and swept them apart.
Yet neither by wolf, nor by Balrog, nor by Dragon, would Morgoth have achieved his end, but for the treachery of Men. /.../ and the host of Maedhros was assailed now on three sides, and it broke, and was scattered, and fled this way and that. Yet /.../ gathering a remnant of the Noldor and the Naugrim about them they hewed a way out of the battle and escaped far away towards Mount Dolmed in the east.
/.../ But now in the western battle Fingon and Turgon were assailed by a tide of foes thrice greater than all the force that was left to them. Gothmog, Lord of Balrogs, high-captain of Angband, was come /.../. At last Fingon stood alone with his guard dead about him; and he fought with Gothmog, until another Balrog came behind and cast a thong of fire about him. Then Gothmog hewed him with his black axe, and a white flame sprang up from the helm of Fingon as it was cloven. Thus fell the High King of the Noldor; and they beat him into the dust with their maces, and his banner, blue and silver, they trod into the mire of his blood.
/.../ All the valiant Men of Hador were slain about him in a heap; and the Orcs hewed their heads and piled them as a mound of gold in the sunset.
/.../ The Orcs and the wolves went freely through all the North, and came ever further -southward into Beleriand.


Fr.83a-b
a. ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/.
Now the power and malice of Glomund waxed apace and well-nigh all the realm of Nargothrond of old he laid waste, both west of Narog and beyond it to the east; and he gathered Orcs to him and ruled as a dragon-king; and there were battles on the marches of the woodmen's land, and the Orcs fled.
b. UT/1:2. Narn I Hin Hurin. The Coming of Glaurung.
Now the power and malice of Glaurung grew apace, and he waxed fat, and he gathered Orcs to -him, and ruled as a dragon-King, and all the realm of Nargothrond that had been was laid under him. /.../ the woodmen were worsted, for these Orcs were of a fell breed, fierce and cunning; and they came indeed with a purpose to invade the Forest of Brethil, not as before passing through its eaves on other errands, or hunting in small bands.

Fr.84a-b
a. ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/.
/Ulmo's Advice:/ 'without Men the Elves shall not prevail against the Orcs and Balrogs'.
b. ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/. [§16, Var. II = §16 in Q II version]. 'Forget,' counselled Ulmo, 'the treachery of Uldor the accursed, and remember Hurin; far without mortal Men the Elves shall not prevail against the Balrogs and the Orcs.'

Fr.85
ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/

/The host of Morgoth/ He /Morgoth/ loosed upon Gondolin his Orcs and his Balrogs and his serpents; and of these, dragons of many and dire shapes were now devised for the taking of the city.

Fr.86
ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/
/Late addition to / = Note 1 to
Make Earendel move the Gods. And it is said that there were Men of Hithlum repentant of their evil in that day, and that so were fulfilled Ulmo's words, for by Earendel's embassy and the aid of valiant Men the Orcs and Balrogs were destroyed, yet not as utterly as might have been.

Fr.87 a-d
a. ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/.
The meeting of the hosts of Fionwe and of Morgoth in the North is named the Last Battle, the Battle Terrible, the Battle Terrible, the Battle of Wrath and Thunder /.../. There was marshalled the whole power of the Throne of Hate, and well nigh measureless had it become, so that Dor-na-Fauglith might by no means contain it, and all the North was aflame with war. But it availed not. All the Balrogs were destroyed, and the uncounted hosts of the Orcs perished like straw in fire, or were swept away like shrivelled leaves before a burning wind. Few remained to trouble the world thereafter. And Morgoth himself came forth, and all his dragons were about him; and Fionwe for a moment was driven back. But the sons of the Valar in the end overthrew them all, and but two escaped. Morgoth escaped not.
Cf. b. ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/. [§18, Var.II = §18 in Q II version].
The meeting of the hosts of the West and of the North is named the Great Battle, the Battle Terrible, the Battle of Wrath and Thunder. There was marshalled the whole power of the Throne of Hate, and well nigh measureless had it become, so that Dor-na-Fauglith could not contain it, and all the North was aflame with war. But it availed not. All the Balrogs were destroyed, and the uncounted hosts of the Orcs perished like straw in fire, or were swept like shrivelled leaves before a burning wind. Few remained to trouble the world thereafter. And it is said that there many Men of Hithlum repentant of their evil servitude did deeds of valour, and many beside of Men new come out of the East; and so were fulfilled in part the words of Ulmo; for by Earendel son of Tuor was help brought unto the Elves, and by the swords of Men were they strengthened on the fields of war. /cf. Fr.86/ But Morgoth quailed and he came not forth; and he loosed his last assault, and that was the winged dragons. So sudden and so swift and ruinous was the onset of that fleet, as a tempest of a hundred thunders winged with steel, that Fionwe was driven back; but Earendel came and a myriad of birds were about him, and the battle lasted all through the night of doubt. And Earendel slew Ancalagon the black and the mightiest of all the dragon-horde, and cast him from the sky, and in his fall the towers of Thangorodrim were thrown down. Then the sun rose of the second day and the sons' of the Valar prevailed, and all the dragons were destroyed save two alone; and they fled into the East. Then were all the pits of Morgoth broken and unroofed, and the might of Fionwe descended into the deeps of the Earth, and there Morgoth was thrown down.
c. LsR (HME5)/2:3. The Later Annals of Beleriand /AB 2/
Year 350 .
Here Fionwe fought the last battle of the ancient world, the Great or Terrible Battle. /Orcs are strikingly not mentioned by their own name, but, as comparison of wording shows, just as "hosts of Morgoth"!/ Morgoth himself came forth from Angband, and passed over Taur-na-Fuin, and the thunder of his approach rolled in the mountains. The waters of Sirion lay between the hosts; and long and bitterly they contested the passage. But Fionwe crossed Sirion and the hosts of Morgoth were driven as leaves, and the Balrogs were utterly destroyed; and Morgoth fled back to Angband pursued by Fionwe. From Angband Morgoth loosed the winged dragons, which had not before been seen; and Fionwe was beaten back upon Dor-na-Fauglith. But Earendel came in the sky and overthrew Ancalagon the Black Dragon, and in his fall Thangorodrim was broken. The sons of the Gods wrestled with Morgoth in his dungeons /.../ Morgoth was bound. This war lasted fifty years from the landing of Fionwe /till 397//597/.
d. LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/. The Conclusion of the Quenta Silmarillion.
.
The meeting of the hosts of the West and of the North is named the Great Battle, the Battle Terrible, and the War of Wrath. There was marshalled the whole power of the Throne of Morgoth, and it had become great beyond count, so that Dor-na-Fauglith could not contain it, and all the North was aflame with war. But it availed not. The Balrogs were destroyed, save some few that fled and hid themselves in caverns inaccessible at the roots of the earth. The uncounted legions of the Orcs perished like straw in a great fire, or were swept like shrivelled leaves before a burning wind. Few remained to trouble the world for long years after.

Fr.88 a-c
a. ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/.
/After the Last Battle and Morgoth's capture/ Thus did the Gods adjudge when Fionwe and the sons of the Valar returned unto Valmar: the Outer Lands should thereafter be for Men, the younger children of the world; but to the Elves alone should the gateways of the West stand ever open; but if they would not come thither and tarried in the world of Men, then should they slowly fade and fail. And so hath it been; and this is the most grievous of the fruits of the works and lies of Morgoth. For a while his Orcs and Dragons breeding again in dark places troubled and affrighted the world, as in far places they do yet; but ere the End /еще до Конца Света/ all shall perish by the valour of mortal Men.
b. Cf. /Ibid./ ShME (HME 4)/3. The Quenta /Quenta Noldorinwa/, /Q/, [§19, Var.II = §19 in Q II version]: /.../ This is the most grievous of the fruits of the lies and works that Morgoth wrought, that the Eldalie should be sundered and estranged from Men. For a while his Orcs and his Dragons breeding again in dark places affrighted the world, and in sundry regions do so yet; but ere the End all shall perish by the valour of mortal Men.
c. LsR (HME5)/2:6. Quenta Silmarillion /QS/. The Conclusion of the Quenta Silmarillion. .
This was the doom of the Gods, when Fionwe and the sons of the Valar returned to Valmar and told of all the things that had been done. Thereafter the Hither Lands of Middle-earth should be for Mankind, the younger children of the world; but to the Elves, the Firstborn, alone should the gateways of the West stand ever open. And if the Elves would not come thither and tarried in the lands of Men, then they should slowly fade and fail. This is the most grievous of the fruits of the lies and works that Morgoth wrought, that the Eldalie should be sundered and estranged from Men. For a while other evils that he had devised or nurtured lived on, although he himself was taken away; and Orcs and Dragons, breeding again in dark places, became names of terror, and did evil deeds, as in sundry regions they still do; but ere the End all shall perish.

Fr.89
ShME (HME 4)/6. The Earliest Annals of Valinor /AV 1/
/Year/ 2990-91.
/The Trees' destruction and fight with Ungoliant. Afterwads,/ hunted by the Valar he /Morgoth/ escaped into the North of the Hither Lands and re-established there his stronghold, and bred and gathered once more his evil servants, Orcs and Balrogs.

Fr.90 a-b
a. ShME (HME 4)/7. The Earliest Annals of Beleriand /AB I/
/beginning of Annals/
Morgoth flees from Valinor with the Silmarils /.../, and returns into the Northern World, and rebuilds his fortress of Angband beneath the Black Mountain, Thangorodrim. He devises the Balrogs and the Orcs. /.../ The Gnomes of the eldest house, the Dispossessed, come into the North /.../ First of the Battles with Morgoth,' the Battle under Stars. Feanor defeats the Orcs, but is mortally wounded by Gotmog captain of Balrogs, and dies.
b. ShME (HME 4)/7. The Earliest Annals of Beleriand /AB 1/. Second Version of the Earliest Annals.
/beginning of Annals/
Morgoth /.../ returned into the Northern regions and rebuilt his fortress of Angband beneath the Black Mountains, where is their highest peak Thangorodrim. He devised the Balrogs and the Orcs.

Fr.91a-b
a. ShME (HME 4)/7. The Earliest Annals of Beleriand /AB 1/
Year 172
/The Battle of Unnumbered Tears/ ...Morgoth now sent forth all the folk of Angband and Hell was emptied. There came afresh a hundred thousand Orcs and a thousand Balrogs, and in the forefront came Glomund the Dragon, and Elves and Men withered before him.
b. LsR (HME5)/2:3. The Later Annals of Beleriand /AB 2/
Year 272
/The Battle of Unnumbered Tears/ For Morgoth sent forth now all the dwellers in Angband, and hell was emptied. There came a hundred thousand Orcs, and a thousand Balrogs, and in the van was Glomund the Dragon; and Elves and Men withered before him.

Fr.92
ShME (HME 4)/7. Commentary on the Annals of Beleriand (AB 1). /Comm./
/Commentary on the beginning of Annals/
There is here the remarkable statement that Morgoth 'devises the Balrogs and the Orcs', implying that it was only now that they came into being. In Q (§2) /= Fr.76/, following S /= Fr.68/, they originated (if the Balrogs were not already in existence) in the ancient darkness after the overthrow of the Lamps, and when Morgoth returned to Angband 'countless became the number of the hosts of his Orcs and demons' (§4) /= Fr.77/; similarly in AV 1/= Fr.89/ he 'bred and gathered once more his evil servants, Orcs and Balrogs'. A note written against the passage in Q § 4 /= Fr.77, note 8/ directs, however, that the making of the Orcs should be brought in here rather than earlier: and in the version of 'The Silmarillion' that followed Q (later than these Annals) this was in fact done: "when Morgoth returned, countless became the hosts of his beasts and demons; and he brought into being the race of the Orcs, and they grew and multiplied in the bowels of the earth". (The subsequent elaboration of the origin of the Orcs is extremely complex and cannot be entered into here.) It is clear, therefore, that these words in AB 1, despite the fact of its being evidently earlier than AV 1, look forward to the later idea (itself impermanent) that the Orcs were not made until after Morgoth's return from Valinor.

Fr.93
LsR (HME5)/1:2. The Fall of Numenor. (iii) The second version of The Fall of Numenor /FN 2
.
In the Great Battle when Fionwe son of Manwe overthrew Morgoth and rescued the Exiles, the three houses of the Men of Beleriand fought against Morgoth. But most Men were allies of the Enemy; and after the victory of the Lords of the West those that were not destroyed fled eastward into Middle-earth; and the servants of Morgoth that escaped came to them, and enslaved them. For the Gods forsook for a time the Men of Middle-earth, because they had disobeyed their summons and hearkened to the Enemy. And Men were troubled by many evil things that Morgoth had made in the days of his dominion: demons and dragons and monsters, and Orcs, that are mockeries of the creatures of Iluvatar; and their lot was unhappy. /.../ Yet his /Morgoth's/ Will remaineth, and guideth his servants; and it moveth them ever to seek the overthrow of the Gods and the hurt of those that obey them.

Fr.94
LsR (HME5)/1:3. The Lost Road. (ii) The Numenorean chapters. Chapter IV /HME V. P.65/.
/Elendil's speech/ And there were evil things also upon earth, made by Morgoth in the days of his dominion, demons and dragons and mockeries of the creatures of Iluvatar. And there too lay hid many of his servants, spirits of evil, whom his will governed still though his presence was not among them. And of these Sauron was the chief, and his power grew.

Fr.95
LsR (HME5)/2:2. The Later Annals of Valinor /AV 2/
Valian Year 2990.
/After the Trees' destruction and battle with Ungoliant/ Morgoth was hunted by the Valar, but he escaped into the North of Middle-earth, and re-established there his strong places, and bred and gathered once more his evil servants, Orcs and Balrogs. (Then fear came into Beleriand, which for many ages had dwelt in starlit peace /.../).
Commentary on AV 2. /Comm. on V.Y. 2990/.
The phrase 'bred and gathered once more his evil servants, Orcs and Balrogs', retained from AV 1 / Fr.89/, shows the conception still present that the Orcs were first brought into being long before Morgoth's return to Middle-earth, in contrast to the opening of AB 2.

Fr.96
LsR (HME5)/2:3. The Later Annals of Beleriand /AB 2/
/beginning of Annals/
He /Morgoth after the Trees' destruction/ returned into the northern regions of the West of Middle-earth, and rebuilt his fortress of Angband, beneath the black Mountains of Iron, where their highest peak Thangorodrim towers. He brought forth Orcs and Balrogs; and set the Silmarils in his iron crown.
Commentary on AB 2. /Comm. on the beginning of Annals/
The statement that Melko 'brought forth Orcs and Balrogs' after his return to Middle-earth is retained from AB 1 (where the word devised was used), in contrast to AV 1 and 2, where 'he bred and gathered once more his evil servants, Orcs and Balrogs'; see my discussion of this, /HME/ IV. P. 314 / Fr.92/.

Fr.97
LsR (HME5)/2:3. The Later Annals of Beleriand /AB 2/
Year 273 .
Morgoth was now lord of Beleriand, save Doriath, and he filled it with roving bands of Orcs and wolves

Fr.98
LsR (HME5)/2:3. The Later Annals of Beleriand /AB 2/
Year 295
Here Glomund passed into Hithlum and did great evil, and he came over Eredwethion with a host of Orcs, and came into the realm of Narog.

Fr.99
LsR (HME5)/2:3. The Later Annals of Beleriand /AB 2/
Year 347
Great war came now into Beleriand, and Fionwe drove the Orcs and Balrogs before him; and he camped beside Sirion, and his tents were as snow upon the field. He summoned now all Elves, Men, Dwarves, beasts and birds unto his standard, who did not elect to fight for Morgoth. But the power and dread of Morgoth was very great and many did not obey the summons.

Fr.100 a-e
LsR (HME5)/2:5. The Lhammas. Lhammas B. On the Valian Tongue and its Descendants.
a.
The speech of the Gnomes was influenced also much by that of the Ilkorins of Beleriand, and somewhat by tongues of the eldest Men, and a little even by the speech of Angband and of the Orcs. Though they were never far estranged, there came thus also to be differences in speech among the Noldor themselves, and the kinds are accounted five: the speech of Mithrim and of Fingolfin'sfolk; and the speech of Gondolin and the people of Turgon; the speech of Nargothrond and the house and folk of Felagund and his brothers; and the speech of Himring and the sons of Feanor; and the corrupted speech of the thrall-Gnomes, spoken by the Noldor that were held captive in Angband, or compelled to the service of Morgoth and the Orcs. /NB. Note that the Orcs are presented here syntaxically as Morgoth's contragents and cousers of others' service, not as servants themselves!/. Most of these /Noldor mentioned above/ perished in the wars of the North, and ere the end was left only mulanoldorin , or the language of the thralls, and the language of Gondolin, where the ancient tongue was kept most pure.
b.
Orquin, or Orquian, the language of the Orcs, the soldiers and creatures of Morgoth, was partly itself of Valian origin, for it was derived from the Vala Morgoth. But the speech which he taught he perverted wilfully to evil, as he did all things, and the language of the Orcs was hideous and foul and utterly unlike the languages of the Qendi. But Morgoth himself spoke all tongues with power and beauty, when so he wished.
/Comm. on Lhammas B, §9/. There appears here the first account of the origin of the Orc-speech: a wilful perversion of Valian speech by Morgoth.
c.
The languages of Men were from their beginning diverse and various; yet they were for the most part derived remotely from the language of the Valar. For the Dark-elves, various folk of the Lembi /=Avari/, befriended wandering Men in sundry times and places in the most ancient days, and taught them such things as they knew. But other Men learned also wholly or in part of the Orcs and of the Dwarves; while in the West ere they came into Beleriand the fair houses of the eldest Men learned of the Danas, or Green-elves.
d. Lhammas A /quoted in Comm. on Lhammas B, § 10/
In Lhammas A the origin and early history of the tongues of Men is somewhat differently described: 'For the Dark-elves... befriended wandering Men... and taught them such as they knew; and in the passing of the years the manifold tongues of Men developed from these beginnings, altered by time, and the invention of Men, and owning also the influence both of Dwarves and Orcs /.../'
e. Trees of Tongues /Rend. in Comm. on Lhammas B, § 10/
In the earlier Tree of Tongues the languages of Men are derived solely from Lemberin, agreeing with Lhammas A ('the manifold tongues of Men developed from these beginnings'), whereas the later Tree shows 'influence' (dotted lines) from Dwarf-speech, from Orc-speech, and from Lemberin (but no direct 'descent') /.../.

 


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